Overview of 21 Years of Security Crackdown on Dual and Foreign Nationals

Human Rights Activists in Iran have documented the arrest of 101 individuals with foreign or dual citizenship by Iranian security agencies since 2003. This analysis reveals significant flaws in the judicial system, highlighted by routine arbitrary detentions and the absence of fair legal processes.

Iran’s regime has consistently targeted dual and foreign nationals for political leverage, often accusing them of espionage or threatening national security, typically without credible evidence. HRANA has noted numerous instances of unfair trials, where proceedings occur in languages the accused do not understand, the denial of private legal representation, disproportionate sentencing, prolonged solitary confinement, and coercive interrogations leading to forced and sometimes televised confessions.

The UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention has recognized that some detainees are specifically targeted due to their nationality or social status. Despite statements from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in November 2021 promising safety for dual nationals visiting Iran, the continued detentions and the regime’s refusal to release current detainees convey a starkly opposite and discouraging reality. This inconsistency perpetuates fear and insecurity among Iranians holding dual citizenship.

There is a pressing need for sustained international pressure to secure the release of all detained dual and foreign nationals. The listed individuals, predominantly detained by the IRGC intelligence since 2003, include Americans, British, and Canadians, with some unfortunately never returning home, facing execution or death in custody. Meanwhile, others still await critical interventions.

Noteworthy Points:

  • The actual number of detentions may exceed what has been reported.
  • The number of detained dual citizens significantly surpasses that of foreign nationals, indicating a profound mistrust in Iran’s assurances to dual citizens contemplating a return to their homeland.
1. Saeed Abedini
Saeed Abedini
      • Date of Arrest: October 2012 (Mehr 1391)
      • Date of Release: Late January 2016 (Dey 1394)
      • Citizenship: Iranian – American
      • Charges: Forming house churches to disrupt national security and colluding to commit a crime
      • Sentence: 8 years in prison
2. Vahik Abrahamian
Vahik Abrahamian
    • Date of Arrest: February 20, 2010 (Esfand 1388)
    • Date of Release: February 2011 (Esfand 1389)
    • Citizenship: Iranian – Dutch
    • Charges: Promoting Christianity
    • Sentence: Imprisoned for one year in Evin Prison and eventually released and returned to the Netherlands.
3. Afarin Neysari
Afarin Neysari
    • Date of Arrest: July 20, 2016 (Tir 1395)
    • Date of Release: Late July 2018 (Tir 1397)
    • Citizenship: Iranian – American
    • Charges: Espionage
    • Sentence: 16 years in prison / Released on bail of 40 billion tomans
4. Karan Vafadari
Karan Vafadari
    • Date of Arrest: July 20, 2016 (Tir 1395)
    • Date of Release: Late July 2018 (Tir 1397)
    • Citizenship: Iranian – American
    • Charges: Espionage
    • Sentence: 27 years in prison / Released on bail of 40 billion tomans

 

5. Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe
Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe
    • Date of Arrest: March 2016 (Farvardin 1395)
    • Date of Release: Mid-March 2021 (Esfand 1399) for the first case, March 25, 2022 (Esfand 25, 1400) for the second case
    • Citizenship: Iranian – British
    • Charges: First case: Assembly and collusion against national security / Second case: Propaganda activities against the regime
    • Sentence: First case: 5 years in prison, Second case: 1 year in prison and 1-year travel ban

 

6. Afshin Shafiee
Afshin Shafiee
    • Date of Arrest: December 17, 2012 (Azar 26, 1391)
    • Date of Release: January 2013 (Dey 1391)
    • Citizenship: Iranian – Norwegian
    • Charges:
    • Sentence: Released on bail and left Iran.

 

7. Jason Rezaian
Jason Rezaian
    • Date of Arrest: July 22, 2014 (Tir 31, 1393)
    • Date of Release: January 2016 (Dey 1394)
    • Citizenship: Iranian – American
    • Charges: Espionage and actions against national security
    • Sentence: Exchanged with several Iranian-American prisoners in the US.

 

8. Amir Mirza Hekmati
Amir Mirza Hekmati
    • Date of Arrest: December 7, 2011 (Azar 16, 1390)
    • Date of Release: January 2016 (Dey 1394)
    • Citizenship: Iranian – American
    • Charges: Espionage
    • Sentence: Initially sentenced to death, later commuted to ten years in prison / Exchanged with several Iranian-American prisoners in the US.

 

9. Nossratollah (Farzad) Khosravi-Roodsari
    • Date of Arrest: 2014 (1393)
    • Date of Release: January 2016 (Dey 1394)
    • Citizenship: Iranian – American
    • Charges:
    • Sentence: Exchanged with several Iranian-American prisoners in the US.

 

10. Sonia Boubnovaich
Sonia Boubnovaich
    • Date of Arrest: December 13, 2015 (Azar 22, 1394)
    • Date of Release: January 2016 (Dey 1394)
    • Citizenship: Croatian – Swedish resident of Iran
    • Charges:
    • Sentence: Released on bail.

 

11. Reza Islami
Reza Islami
    • Date of Arrest: May 10, 2020 (Ordibehesht 21, 1399)
    • Date of Release: Temporarily released on March 20, 2022 (Esfand 29, 1400) and later conditionally freed after serving one-third of his sentence, confirmed by the Tehran Appeals Court.
    • Citizenship: Iranian – Canadian
    • Charges: Collaboration with hostile foreign governments (USA) against the Islamic Republic through participation in rule of law training courses in the Czech Republic
    • Sentence: Seven years in prison, barred from teaching, and a travel ban

 

12. Homa Hoodfar
Homa Hoodfar
    • Date of Arrest: June 6, 2016 (Khordad 17, 1395)
    • Date of Release: October 2016 (Mehr 1395)
    • Citizenship: Iranian – Canadian
    • Charges:
    • Sentence:

 

13. Xiyue Wang

Xiyue Wang

    • Date of Arrest: Summer 2016 (1395)
    • Date of Release: November 2019 (Aban 1398)
    • Citizenship: Chinese – American
    • Charges: Espionage
    • Sentence: 10 years in prison / Exchanged with an Iranian-American prisoner in the US.

 

14. (First Name Unknown) Tavakoli
    • Date of Arrest:
    • Date of Release:
    • Citizenship: Dual nationality but details unknown
    • Charges: Espionage
    • Sentence: 8 years and 6 months in prison

 

15. Hassan Rostamgari Majd*

assan Rostamgari Majd

    • Date of Arrest: October 27, 2014 (Aban 5, 1393)
    • Date of Release: Still imprisoned in Urmia Prison
    • Citizenship: Turkish
    • Charges: First case: Actions against national security through collaboration with opposition groups / Second case: Insulting religious sanctities and propaganda against the regime / Third case: Rioting in prison and fighting with officers / Fourth case: Escape during prison leave from his 2010 conviction
    • Sentence: First case: 15 years in prison and revocation of Iranian citizenship / Second case: 2 years in prison / Third case: 1 year in prison / Fourth case: 4 months in prison

 

16. Reza (Robin) Shahini
Shahini
    • Date of Arrest: July 15, 2016 (Tir 25, 1395)
    • Date of Release: March 2017 (Farvardin 1396)
    • Citizenship: Iranian – American
    • Charges: “Collaboration with Voice of America as part of the hostile US government and participation in related programs, propaganda against the Islamic Republic of Iran, and in favor of opposition groups and organizations, membership in opposition groups including monarchists, inciting and provoking people to disrupt national security, and insulting Imam Khomeini and Ayatollah Khamenei
    • Sentence: 18 years in prison, with only the “most severe punishment” of 9 years enforceable under Article 134 / Released on bail of 200 million tomans

 

 17. Nahid Taghavi*
Nahid Taghavi
    • Date of Arrest: October 16, 2020 (Mehr 25, 1399)
    • Date of Release: Still imprisoned in Evin Prison
    • Citizenship: Iranian – German
    • Charges: Participation in managing an illegal group and propaganda against the regime
    • Sentence: 10 years and 8 months in prison

 

18. Benjamin Brière
Benjamin Brière
    • Date of Arrest: June 2020 (Khordad 1399)
    • Date of Release: May 2023 (Ordibehesht 1402)
    • Citizenship: French
    • Charges: Propaganda against the regime and espionage
    • Sentence: 8 years and 8 months in prison / Released through “engagement between Iran and France.”

 

19. Jamshid Sharmahd*
Jamshid Sharmahd
    • Date of Arrest: August 2020 (Mordad 1399)
    • Date of Release: Still imprisoned in an undisclosed location
    • Citizenship: Iranian – German
    • Charges: Corruption on earth through leadership of an opposition group, planning and leading the bombing of the Hosseiniyeh in Shiraz
    • Sentence: Death penalty confirmed by the Supreme Court

 

20. Kameel Ahmadi
Kameel Ahmadi
    • Date of Arrest: August 11, 2019 (Mordad 20, 1398)
    • Date of Release: November 18, 2019 (Aban 27, 1398)
    • Citizenship: Iranian – British
    • Charges: “Illegally acquiring property through collaboration and implementing projects for overthrowing institutions.”
    • Sentence: 9 years in prison and a fine of 600,000 euros

 

21. Emad Shargi
Emad Shargi
    • Date of Arrest: Autumn 2020 (1399)
    • Date of Release: September 2023 (Shahrivar 1402)
    • Citizenship: Iranian – American
    • Charges: Espionage and gathering military information
    • Sentence: 10 years in prison / Released in a prisoner exchange between Iran and the US.

 

22. Bahareh Amid (Emad Shargi’s wife)
Bahareh Amid
    • Date of Arrest: March 2018 (Farvardin 1397)
    • Date of Release: The same year (probably short-term)
    • Citizenship: Iranian – American
    • Charges:
    • Sentence:

 

23. Fariba Adelkhah
Fariba Adelkhah
    • Date of Arrest: June 6, 2019 (Khordad 17, 1398)
    • Date of Release: March 12, 2023 (Esfand 22, 1401)
    • Citizenship: Iranian – French
    • Charges: Propaganda against the regime and assembly and collusion against national security
    • Sentence: 6 years in prison / Released under a general amnesty directive from Evin Prison

 

24. Siamak Namazi
Siamak Namazi
    • Date of Arrest: October 2015 (Mehr 1394)
    • Date of Release: September 2023 (Shahrivar 1402)
    • Citizenship: Iranian – American
    • Charges: Collaboration with the hostile US government
    • Sentence: 10 years in prison / Released in a prisoner exchange between Iran and the US.

 

25. Baquer Namazi
Baquer Namazi
    • Date of Arrest: February 2016 (Esfand 1394)
    • Date of Release: Early 2019 (1398) due to medical treatment
    • Citizenship: Iranian – American
    • Charges: Collaboration with the hostile US government
    • Sentence: 10 years in prison

 

26. Maymand Hosseini-Chavoushi
Chavoushi
    • Date of Arrest: November 2018 (Aban 1397)
    • Date of Release: Early February 2019 (Bahman 1397)
    • Citizenship: Iranian – Australian
    • Charges: Collaboration with foreign governments and assembly and collusion against national security through research on population control
    • Sentence: 5 years

 

27. Ahmadreza Djalali*
Ahmadreza Djalali
    • Date of Arrest: May 2016 (Ordibehesht 1395)
    • Date of Release: Still imprisoned in Evin Prison
    • Citizenship: Iranian – Swedish
    • Charges: Espionage
    • Sentence: Death penalty confirmed by the Supreme Court
28. Nizar Zakka
Nizar Zakka
    • Date of Arrest: 2015 (1394)
    • Date of Release: June 11, 2019 (Khordad 21, 1398)
    • Citizenship: Lebanese – American
    • Charges: Espionage and collaboration with a hostile government
    • Sentence: 10 years in prison and a fine of $4.2 million
29. Anousheh Ashouri
Anousheh Ashouri
    • Date of Arrest: 2017 (1396)
    • Date of Release: March 16, 2022 (Esfand 25, 1400)
    • Citizenship: Iranian – British
    • Charges: Espionage for Israel and illegal acquisition of funds
    • Sentence: 12 years in prison and a fine of €33,000

 

30. Hamid Ghassemi-Shall
Ghassemi-Shall
    • Date of Arrest: 2008 (1387)
    • Date of Release: October 2013 (Mehr 1392)
    • Citizenship: Iranian – Canadian
    • Charges: Initially espionage, later revised to assembly and collusion against national security
    • Sentence: Initially sentenced to death, later reduced to 5 years in prison

 

31. Roya Saberi Nejad-Nobakht
Roya Saberi Nejad-Nobakht
    • Date of Arrest: September 28, 2013 (Mehr 6, 1392)
    • Date of Release:
    • Citizenship: Iranian – British
    • Charges: Insulting religious sanctities and insulting the heads of the three branches of government
    • Sentence: 4 years in prison
32. Kylie Moore-Gilbert
Kylie Moore-Gilbert
    • Date of Arrest: Autumn 2018 (1397)
    • Date of Release: November 25, 2020 (Azar 5, 1399)
    • Citizenship: Australian
    • Charges: Endangering Iran’s national security
    • Sentence: 10 years in prison

 

33. Masoud Karami
    • Date of Arrest: February 14, 2012 (Bahman 25, 1390)
    • Date of Release:
    • Citizenship: Iranian – Norwegian
    • Charges:
    • Sentence:

 

34. Abbas Edalat
Abbas Edalat
    • Date of Arrest: April 14, 2018 (Farvardin 26, 1397)
    • Date of Release: January 2019 (Dey 1397)
    • Citizenship: Iranian – British
    • Charges:
    • Sentence:

 

35. Morad Tahbaz
Morad Tahbaz
    • Date of Arrest: January 24, 2018 (Bahman 4, 1396)
    • Date of Release: September 2023 (Shahrivar 1402)
    • Citizenship: Iranian – American
    • Charges: Espionage
    • Sentence: 10 years in prison / Released in a prisoner exchange between Iran and the US.

 

36. Kavous Seyed-Emami
Kavous Seyed-Emami
    • Date of Arrest: February 2018 (Bahman 1396)
    • Date of Release: Died in prison
    • Citizenship: Iranian – Canadian
    • Charges: Espionage
    • Sentence:

 

37. Abdolrasoul Dorri Esfahani
Abdolrasoul Dorri Esfahani
    • Date of Arrest: August 2016 (Mordad 1395)
    • Date of Release:
    • Citizenship: Iranian – Canadian
    • Charges: Espionage – collaboration with British intelligence service
    • Sentence: 5 years in prison

 

38. Haleh Esfandiari
Haleh Esfandiari
    • Date of Arrest: May 8, 2007 (Ordibehesht 18, 1386)
    • Date of Release: August 21, 2007 (Mordad 30, 1386)
    • Citizenship: Iranian – American
    • Charges: Actions against national security and soft overthrow
    • Sentence: Released on bail

 

39. Akbar Lakestani
Lakestani
    • Date of Arrest: September 28, 2019 (Mehr 6, 1398)
    • Date of Release: November 13, 2019 (Aban 22, 1398)
    • Citizenship: Iranian – American
    • Charges: Propaganda against the regime
    • Sentence: Released on bail and left the country

 

40. Sarah Shourd
Sarah Shourd
    • Date of Arrest: July 30, 2009 (Mordad 8, 1388)
    • Date of Release: September 14, 2010 (Shahrivar 23, 1389)
    • Citizenship: American
    • Charges: Illegal entry into Iran and espionage
    • Sentence: Released on bail and left the country

 

41. Josh Fattal
Josh Fattal
    • Date of Arrest: September 14, 2010 (Shahrivar 23, 1389)
    • Date of Release: December 27, 2011 (Dey 6, 1390)
    • Citizenship: American
    • Charges: Illegal entry into Iran and espionage
    • Sentence: 8 years in prison

 

42. Shane Bauer
Shane Bauer
    • Date of Arrest: September 14, 2010 (Shahrivar 23, 1389)
    • Date of Release: December 27, 2011 (Dey 6, 1390)
    • Citizenship: American
    • Charges: Illegal entry into Iran and espionage
    • Sentence: 8 years in prison

 

43. Michael White
Michael White
    • Date of Arrest: July 1, 2018 (Tir 10, 1397)
    • Date of Release: June 4, 2020 (Khordad 15, 1399)
    • Citizenship: American
    • Charges: Insulting the Supreme Leader and publishing a private photo
    • Sentence: 10 years in prison

 

44. Maziar Bahari
Maziar Bahari
    • Date of Arrest: June 1, 2009 (Khordad 11, 1388)
    • Date of Release: October 13, 2009 (Mehr 21, 1388)
    • Citizenship: Iranian – Canadian
    • Charges: Assembly and collusion with the intent to commit crimes against national security, collecting and keeping confidential and classified documents, propaganda against the Islamic Republic of Iran, insulting the Supreme Leader, insulting the President, and disrupting public order
    • Sentence: 13 years and 6 months in prison and 74 lashes

 

45. Roxana Saberi
Roxana Saberi
    • Date of Arrest: February 1, 2009 (Bahman 12, 1387)
    • Date of Release: May 11, 2009 (Ordibehesht 21, 1388)
    • Citizenship: American
    • Charges: Espionage and collecting documents against the Islamic Republic
    • Sentence: 2 years suspended prison sentence

 

46. Zahra Kazemi
Zahra Kazemi
    • Date of Arrest: June 24, 2003 (Tir 3, 1382)
    • Date of Release: Died during detention
    • Citizenship: Iranian – Canadian
    • Charges: Photographing prohibited areas
    • Sentence:

 

 47. Matthew Trevithick
Matthew Trevithick
    • Date of Arrest: December 8, 2015 (Azar 17, 1394)
    • Date of Release: January 2016 (Dey 1394)
    • Citizenship: American
    • Charges: Espionage
    • Sentence:

 

48. Robert Levinson
Robert Levinson
    • Date of Arrest: February 2007 (Esfand 1385)
    • Date of Release: Disappeared
    • Citizenship: Iranian – American
    • Charges:
    • Sentence:

 

49. Hossein Derakhshan
Hossein Derakhshan
    • Date of Arrest: November 1, 2008 (Aban 11, 1387)
    • Date of Release: November 19, 2013 (Aban 28, 1392)
    • Citizenship: Iranian – Canadian
    • Charges: Collaboration with hostile governments, propaganda against the Islamic regime, propaganda in favor of anti-regime groups, insulting religious sanctities, running and managing immoral and obscene websites
    • Sentence: 19 years and 6 months in prison and 5 years barred from membership in parties and media activities

 

50. Aras Amiri
Aras Amiri
    • Date of Arrest: March 2018 (Esfand 1396)
    • Date of Release: July 2021 (Tir 1400)
    • Citizenship: Iranian – British
    • Charges: Espionage
    • Sentence: 10 years in prison

 

51-58. Seven Slovakian Citizens (Identities Unknown)Date of Arrest: July 2013 (Tir 1392) – Date of Release: September 2013 (Shahrivar 1392) – Citizenship: Slovakian – Charges: Espionage – Sentence:
59. Clotilde Reiss
Clotilde Reiss
    • Date of Arrest: 2009 (1388)
    • Date of Release: August 2009 (Mordad 1388) on bail
    • Citizenship: French
    • Charges: Espionage
    • Sentence: 5 years in prison, reduced to a fine upon her departure from Iran on May 16, 2016 (Ordibehesht 27, 1395)

 

60. Stéphanie Larbieux
Stéphanie Larbieux
    • Date of Arrest: November 6, 2005 (Aban 15, 1384)
    • Date of Release: January 2007 (Dey 1385)
    • Citizenship: French
    • Charges:
    • Sentence:

 

61. Donald Klein
Donald Klein
    • Date of Arrest: November 6, 2005 (Aban 15, 1384)
    • Date of Release: January 2007 (Dey 1385)
    • Citizenship: German
    • Charges:
    • Sentence:

 

62. Nelly Erin-Cambron
Nelly Erin-Cambron
    • Date of Arrest: October 21, 2018 (Mehr 29, 1397)
    • Date of Release: February 24, 2019 (Esfand 5, 1397)
    • Citizenship: French
    • Charges: Signing an illegal mining contract
    • Sentence:

 

63. Kian Tajbakhsh
Kian Tajbakhsh
    • Date of Arrest: July 2009 (Tir 1388)
    • Date of Release: March 12, 2010 (Esfand 22, 1388)
    • Citizenship: Iranian – American
    • Charges:
    • Sentence: 5 years in prison

 

64. Habib Chaab (Habib Asyoud)
Habib Chaab
    • Date of Arrest: November 2021 (Aban 1400)
    • Date of Release: Executed
    • Citizenship: Iranian – Swedish
    • Charges: Corruption on earth through leading a group named Harakat al-Nidal

 

65. Rouhollah Zam
Rouhollah Zam
    • Date of Arrest: October 2019 (Mehr 1398)
    • Date of Release: Executed
    • Citizenship: Iranian – French
    • Charges: “Corruption on earth, forming and managing ‘Amadnews’ and ‘Voice of the People’ channels to disrupt national security, espionage for the Israeli intelligence service through the intelligence service of a regional country, espionage for the French intelligence service, collaboration with the hostile US government against the Islamic Republic of Iran, assembly and collusion to commit crimes against internal and external national security, engaging in propaganda activities against the regime, membership and management of the ‘Saham News’ website to disrupt national security, inciting and provoking people to war and killing to disrupt national security, collecting classified information with the intent to provide it to others to disrupt national security, spreading falsehoods, inciting military personnel and individuals serving in the armed forces to rebellion, escape, surrender or failing to carry out their military duties, insulting religious sanctities, insulting the founder of the Islamic Republic and the leadership, insulting officials and agents, illicitly obtaining property, and complaints from some legal and natural persons.”
    • Sentence: Death

 

66. Mostafa Azizi
Mostafa Azizi
    • Date of Arrest: February 1, 2015 (Bahman 12, 1393)
    • Date of Release: Late April 2016 (Farvardin 1395)
    • Citizenship: Iranian-Canadian
    • Charges: “Assembly and collusion against national security,” “propaganda against the regime,” and “insulting the leadership”
    • Sentence: 3 years in prison and a fine

 

67. Saeed Malekpour
Saeed Malekpour
    • Date of Arrest: October 2008 (Mehr 1387)
    • Date of Release: Released before completing his sentence by leaving on bail
    • Citizenship: Iranian-Canadian
    • Charges: Cybercrimes (pornography)
    • Sentence: Life imprisonment

 

68. Kamran Ghaderi
Kamran Ghaderi
    • Date of Arrest: January 2016 (Dey 1394)
    • Date of Release: June 2023 (Khordad 1402) / Released during a prisoner exchange with Assadollah Assadi
    • Citizenship: Iranian-Austrian
    • Charges: Espionage
    • Sentence: 10 years in prison

 

69. Yulia Yuzik
Yulia Yuzik
    • Date of Arrest: October 3, 2019 (Mehr 11, 1398)
    • Date of Release: October 10, 2019 (Mehr 18, 1398)
    • Citizenship: Russian
    • Charges: Espionage for Israel
    • Sentence: Released after one week and left Iran

 

70. Mehran Raoof*
Mehran Raoof
    • Date of Arrest: October 2020 (Mehr 1399)
    • Date of Release: Still imprisoned in Evin Prison
    • Citizenship: Iranian-British
    • Charges: Participation in managing an illegal group and propaganda against the regime
    • Sentence: 10 years and 8 months in prison

 

71. Saeed Azizi*
Saeed Azizi
    • Date of Arrest: November 12, 2023 (Aban 21, 1402)
    • Date of Release:
    • Citizenship: Iranian-Swedish
    • Charges: Assembly and collusion to commit a crime
    • Sentence: 5 years in prison

 

72. Shahram Namavar*
    • Date of Arrest: August 2023 (Mordad 1402)
    • Date of Release: Still imprisoned in Evin Prison
    • Citizenship: Iranian-British
    • Charges:
    • Sentence:

 

73. Identity Unknown*
    • Date of Arrest: September 16, 2023 (Shahrivar 25, 1402)
    • Date of Release:
    • Citizenship:
    • Charges: Attempting to organize riots and sabotage
    • Sentence:

 

74. Monireh Terez Basir
Monireh Terez Basir
    • Date of Arrest: November 2022 (Aban 1401)
    • Date of Release: September 18, 2023 (Shahrivar 27, 1402) / Left Iran during a prisoner exchange
    • Citizenship: Iranian-American
    • Charges: Close cooperation with a European intelligence service
    • Sentence:

 

75. Bernard Phelan
Bernard Phelan
    • Date of Arrest: October 3, 2023 (Mehr 11, 1402)
    • Date of Release: May 2021 (Ordibehesht 1401)
    • Citizenship: French-Irish
    • Charges: Providing information to another country
    • Sentence: 6 years and 6 months in prison

 

76. Massoud Mosahib
Massoud Mosahib
    • Date of Arrest: January 2019 (Dey 1397)
    • Date of Release: June 2023 (Khordad 1402)
    • Citizenship: Iranian-Austrian
    • Charges: Collaboration with Israel and the German intelligence service
    • Sentence: 10 years in prison / Released during a prisoner exchange with Assadollah Assadi

 

77. Identity Unknown*
    • Date of Arrest: Late May 2024 (Ordibehesht 1403)
    • Date of Release:
    • Citizenship: European
    • Charges: Organizing Satanic rituals, drinking alcohol, wearing specific Satanic symbols on clothing, head, face, and hair
    • Sentence:

 

78. Identity Unknown*
    • Date of Arrest: Late May 2024 (Ordibehesht 1403)
    • Date of Release:
    • Citizenship: European
    • Charges: Organizing Satanic rituals, drinking alcohol, wearing specific Satanic symbols on clothing, head, face, and hair
    • Sentence:

 

79. Identity Unknown*
    • Date of Arrest: Late May 2024 (Ordibehesht 1403)
    • Date of Release:
    • Citizenship: European
    • Charges: Organizing Satanic rituals, drinking alcohol, wearing specific Satanic symbols on clothing, head, face, and hair
    • Sentence:

 

80. Farhad Mohammad Shamami*
    • Date of Arrest: October 2022 (Mehr 1401)
    • Date of Release: Still imprisoned in Urmia Prison
    • Citizenship: Iraqi
    • Charges: Membership in one of the opposition parties
    • Sentence: 7 years in prison

 

81. Johan Flodorus*
Johan Flodorus
    • Date of Arrest: May 6, 2022 (Ordibehesht 16, 1401)
    • Date of Release:
    • Citizenship: Swedish
    • Charges: Corruption on earth through actions against national security and territorial integrity of the Islamic Republic, collaborating with the Israeli occupying regime, assembly and collusion to commit a crime against national security
    • Sentence:

 

82. Santiago Sanchez
Santiago Sanchez
    • Date of Arrest: October 2023 (Mehr 1402)
    • Date of Release: December 30, 2023 (Dey 10, 1402)
    • Citizenship: Spanish
    • Charges: Arrested during nationwide protests in 2021
    • Sentence:

 

83. Identity Unknown*
    • Date of Arrest: December 2023 (Azar 1402)
    • Date of Release:
    • Citizenship:
    • Charges: Espionage
    • Sentence:

 

84. Hatem Ozdemir*
Hatem Ozdemir
    • Date of Arrest: June 2019 (Khordad 1398)
    • Date of Release: Still imprisoned in Urmia Prison
    • Citizenship: Turkish
    • Charges: Moharebeh (waging war against God)
    • Sentence: Death

 

85. Farid Safari*
Farid Safari
    • Date of Arrest: April 2023 (Farvardin 1402)
    • Date of Release:
    • Citizenship: Azerbaijani
    • Charges: Espionage
    • Sentence: 2 years in prison

 

86. Valida Yusifova
Valida Yusifova
    • Date of Arrest: December 2021 (Dey 1400)
    • Date of Release: August 2023 (Mordad 1402)
    • Citizenship: Azerbaijani
    • Charges: Espionage
    • Sentence:

 

87. Olivier Vandecasteele*
Olivier Vandecasteele
    • Date of Arrest: July 2022 (Tir 1401)
    • Date of Release:
    • Citizenship: Belgian
    • Charges: Espionage against the Islamic Republic of Iran for a foreign intelligence service, collaboration with the hostile US government, money laundering of $500,000, professional currency smuggling of $500,000, and 74 lashes
    • Sentence: 40 years in prison and 74 lashes

 

88. Identity Unknown*
    • Date of Arrest: March 2023 (Esfand 1401)
    • Date of Release:
    • Citizenship: Afghan
    • Charges: Espionage
    • Sentence:

 

89. Ana Baneer
Ana Baneer
    • Date of Arrest: November 2022 (Aban 1401)
    • Date of Release: February 25, 2023 (Esfand 6, 1401)
    • Citizenship: Spanish
    • Charges:
    • Sentence:

 

90. Identity Unknown*
    • Date of Arrest: October 2022 (Mehr 1401)
    • Date of Release:
    • Citizenship: Austrian
    • Charges: Espionage
    • Sentence: 7 years and 6 months in prison

 

91. Louis Arno*
Louis Arno
    • Date of Arrest: September 28, 2022 (Mehr 6, 1401)
    • Date of Release: Still imprisoned in Evin Prison
    • Citizenship: French
    • Charges:
    • Sentence: 5 years in prison

 

92. Identity Unknown*
    • Date of Arrest: December 2022 (Dey 1401)
    • Date of Release:
    • Citizenship: German
    • Charges: Photographing the Omidieh oil facilities
    • Sentence:

 

93. Alicia Piperno
Alicia Piperno
    • Date of Arrest: Early October 2022 (Mehr 1401)
    • Date of Release: November 2022 (Aban 1401)
    • Citizenship: German
    • Charges:
    • Sentence:

 

94. Shaker Baghi*
Shaker Baghi
    • Date of Arrest: February 2008 (Esfand 1386)
    • Date of Release: Still imprisoned in Kashmar Prison
    • Citizenship: Turkish
    • Charges: Membership in one of the opposition parties
    • Sentence: 30 years in prison and exile to Kashmar Prison

 

95. Identity Unknown
    • Date of Arrest:
    • Date of Release: June 2023 (Khordad 1402)
    • Citizenship: Danish
    • Charges:
    • Sentence:

 

96. Identity Unknown*
    • Date of Arrest: Early August 2022 (Mordad 1401)
    • Date of Release:
    • Citizenship: Swedish
    • Charges: Espionage
    • Sentence:

 

97. Senor Tamara*
    • Date of Arrest: Autumn 2020 (1399)
    • Date of Release: July 21, 2022 (Tir 30, 1401), released under a general amnesty directive
    • Citizenship: Turkish
    • Charges: Membership in one of the opposition parties
    • Sentence: 10 years and 1 day in prison

 

98. Cécile Kohler*
Cécile Kohler
    • Date of Arrest: Spring 2022 (1401)
    • Date of Release:
    • Citizenship: French
    • Charges: Organizing “riots and disorder” related to teachers’ union gatherings
    • Sentence:

 

99. Jacques Paris*
Jacques Paris
    • Date of Arrest: Spring 2022 (1401)
    • Date of Release:
    • Citizenship: French
    • Charges: Organizing “riots and disorder” related to teachers’ union gatherings
    • Sentence:

 

100. Mohammad Birdal*
  • Date of Arrest: August 21, 2021 (Mordad 30, 1400)
  • Date of Release: Still imprisoned in Urmia Prison
  • Citizenship: Turkish
  • Charges: Membership in one of the opposition groups
  • Sentence:

 

101. Shahab Dalili*
Shahab Dalili
  • Date of Arrest: 2016 (1395)
  • Date of Release: Still imprisoned in Urmia Prison
  • Citizenship: Iranian-American
  • Charges: Collaboration with a hostile government
  • Sentence: 10 years in prison

 

102. Sereen Curtis (Badiei)*
Sereen Curtis
  • Date of Arrest: March 26, 2023
  • Date of Release:
  • Citizenship: Iranian-New Zealand with U.S. residency
  • Charges: Blasphemy
  • Sentence:
103. Nasrin Roshan*
Nasrin Roshan
  • Date of Arrest:  November 16, 2023
  • Date of Release: Incarcerated in Evin Prison
  • Citizenship: Iranian-British
  • Charges: Assembly and collusion against national security, propaganda against the regime
  • Sentence: Three years in prison
 
 

 Only individuals marked with an asterisk * are still imprisoned or under restrictions in Iran.