Blue Blazer: Examining Political-Security Prisoners Facing Death Sentences on the Anniversary of Iran’s Revolution

HRANA News Agency – In February 1979, Ayatollah Khomeini, traveling in a blue Blazer to Behesht Zahra in Tehran, delivered his famous speech. In his speech, he made numerous promises regarding the economy, justice, and political freedoms. Forty-five years after the 1979 Revolution and that famous speech, and the promises therein,  the realization of fundamental political freedoms and social justice in Iran, are still far from reality. The proof lies in the numerous death sentences and numerous international condemnations regarding the situation of human rights within the country.

This report, published on the anniversary of the 1979 Revolution, presents a comprehensive list of political and security prisoners sentenced to death, their latest status a symbol of the empty promises made that day.

The execution crisis in Iran goes far beyond the population of political prisoners. HRANA recently published a report on a decade of executions in Iran (from 2013 to 2023), presenting statistics on the execution of 4,829 citizens over a decade. However, political and security prisoners, as symbols of dissatisfaction and protest, are followed with more sensitivity by public opinion despite constituting a small percentage of this number.

HRANA, has prepared a list of political and security prisoners sentenced to death in Iran on the occasion of the anniversary of the 1979 Revolution, as a symbol of the revolution’s empty promises of establishing a justice-based system and improving human rights conditions.

According to the latest reviews by HRANA, there are currently at least 35 prisoners with political or security charges in various parts of the country sentenced to death.

This report introduces and reviews the latest status of Abbas (Mojahed) KoorKoori, Reza Rassayi, Anvar Khezri, Kamran Sheikhe, Khosro Besharat, Farshid Hassan Zehi, Mansour Dehmardeh, Jamshid Sharmahd, Mohammad Zeynoddini, Adham Naroui, Mohammad Javad Vafaie Thani, Abbas Deris, Ahmadreza Jalali, Yousef Ahmadi, Mansour Rasouli, Naib Askari, Mehran Bahramian, Fazl Bahramian, Ali Majdam, Mohammadreza Moghadam, Moein Khanfari, Habib Deris, Adnan Ghabishawi, Salem Mousavi, Farhad Shakeri, Eisa EidMohammadi, Abdolrahman Gorgij, Abdolhakim Azim Gorgij, Taj Mohammad Khormali, Malek Ali Fadaei Nasab, Amir Rahim Pour, Malek Davarshan and Ali Obeidavi.

These death row inmates, charged with political and security offenses, are imprisoned in Shiban Ahvaz, Diesel Abad Kermanshah, Ghezel Hesar Karaj, Zahedan, Vakil Abad Mashhad, Mahshahr, Evin, Sanandaj, Urmia, and Dastgerd Isfahan prisons.

Branch 28 of the Tehran Revolutionary Court, presided over by Judge Mohammad Moghiseh, Branch 4 of the Mashhad Revolutionary Court, presided over by Judge Ahmadian Salami, and the Ahvaz Revolutionary Court, with the issuance of death sentences for a total of 16 defendants in four separate cases, have played the most significant role in issuing death sentences for political and security defendants.

Charges leading to the issuance of death sentences for these individuals include Moharebeh (waging war against God), Ifsad fil-Arz (corruption on Earth), Baghy (rebellion), and espionage.

In the following list, names and key details about the latest status of the 35 prisoners sentenced to death on political and security charges are provided:

 

1- Abbas (Mojahed) KoorKoori
Prison Location: Shiban Prison, Ahvaz
Prominent Charges: Moharebeh (waging war against God) through bearing arms, Ifsad fil-Arz (corruption on Earth) through shooting with a military weapon, causing significant bodily harm resulting in the death of seven people, and forming a rebel group
Issuing Court: Branch 1 of the Revolutionary Court in Ahvaz
Latest Case Status: The death sentence confirmed by the Supreme Court and the case referred to the execution branch of the court in Izeh

⬆️ The Judiciary Media Center claims that Abbas (Mojahed) KoorKoori, a prisoner incarcerated in Shiban Prison, Ahvaz, is accused of murdering Kian Pirfalak, a child who died during the nationwide protests in 2021. Despite these claims, Pirfalak’s family, including Zeynab Molaee Rad, the child’s mother, has repeatedly denied this accusation, stating that their child was killed due to gunfire by forces affiliated with the government.

2- Reza Rassayi
Prison Location: Diesel Abad Prison, Kermanshah
Prominent Charges: Direct involvement in the premeditated murder of Nader Birami, the head of the IRGC intelligence in Sahneh city
Issuing Court: Branch 2 of the Criminal Court of Kermanshah
Latest Case Status: The death sentence confirmed by the Supreme Court, the request for a retrial rejected by the Supreme Court, and the case referred to the execution branch of the criminal court in Kermanshah
⬆️ Reza Rassayi, a 35-year-old adherent of the Yarsan faith, was arrested by the intelligence officers in Shahr-e Rey, Tehran, on November 24, 2022, and then transferred to Diesel Abad Prison in Kermanshah. His arrest followed the death of Nader Birami, the head of the IRGC intelligence in Sahneh city, during a commemoration ceremony for the 21st death anniversary of Seyed Khalil Alinejad, one of the former leaders of the Yarsan community.
3- Anvar Khezri
Prison Location: Ghezel Hesar Prison, Karaj
Prominent Charges: Moharebeh through membership in one of the “Salafi groups” and participation in the assassination of a cleric close to the government named “Abdolrahim Tina”
Issuing Court: Branch 28 of the Tehran Revolutionary Court presided over by Judge Mohammad Moghiseh
Latest Case Status: The death sentence confirmed by the Supreme Court
4- Kamran Sheikhe
Prison Location: Ghezel Hesar Prison, Karaj
Prominent Charges: Moharebeh through membership in one of the “Salafi groups” and participation in the assassination of a cleric close to the government named “Abdolrahim Tina”
Issuing Court: Branch 28 of the Tehran Revolutionary Court presided over by Judge Mohammad Moghiseh
Latest Case Status: The death sentence confirmed by the Supreme Court
5- Khosro Besharat
Prison Location: Ghezel Hesar Prison, Karaj
Prominent Charges: Moharebeh through membership in one of the “Salafi groups” and participation in the assassination of a cleric close to the government named “Abdolrahim Tina”
Issuing Court: Branch 28 of the Tehran Revolutionary Court presided over by Judge Mohammad Moghiseh
Latest Case Status: The death sentence confirmed by the Supreme Court

⬆️ Anvar Khezri, Kamran Sheikhe, and Khosro Besharat, three Sunni Muslim prisoners incarcerated in Ghezel Hesar Prison, Karaj, were arrested in 2009 along with Qasem Abesteh, Ayoub Karimi, Davoud Abdollahi, and Farhad Salimi in a joint case for the suspected murder of Mamousta “Abdolrahim Tina” in October 2008, who had been killed by unidentified individuals.
Branch 28 of the Tehran Revolutionary Court, presided over by Judge Mohammad Moghiseh, sentenced these individuals to death in March 2016. After the sentence was overturned by the Supreme Court for further review, it was referred back to Branch 15 of the Tehran Revolutionary Court. Ultimately, Judge Abolqasem Salavati reissued the death sentences for these individuals.
Eventually, Branch 41 of the Supreme Court confirmed these sentences in February 2020. Among them, the execution sentences of Qasem Abesteh, Ayoub Karimi, Davoud Abdollahi, and Farhad Salimi were carried out in Ghezel Hesar Prison, Karaj, on November 5, November 29, December 3, 2022, and January 24, 2023, respectively. Now, the other three defendants in the case are on death row in Ghezel Hesar Prison, Karaj.

6- Farshid Hassan Zehi
Prison Location: Ward 9, Zahedan Prison
Prominent Charges: Shooting at a vehicle near the Cheshmeh Ziarat village checkpoint in Zahedan, murdering the soldier Behzad Barahoui, and injuring First Lieutenant Mehdi Hashem Zehi, a law enforcement officer
Issuing Court: Branch 1 of the Criminal Court of Zahedan
Latest Case Status: Issuance of the death sentence and referral of the case to Branch 32 of the Supreme Court

⬆️ Farshid Hassan Zehi, 26 years old and son of Hanif, was arrested by security forces in the village of Cheshmeh Ziarat, Zahedan, on November 24, 2022, on charges of “shooting at a vehicle near the Cheshmeh Ziarat village checkpoint.” He is currently detained in Ward 9 of Zahedan Prison. The court session that led to his death sentence was held online without the presence of his defense lawyer.

7- Mansour Dehmardeh
Prison Location: Ward 9, Zahedan Prison
Prominent Charges: Corruption on Earth (Ifsad fil-Arz)
Issuing Court: Branch 2 of the Criminal Court of Shahid Nouri in Zahedan
Latest Case Status: Issuance of the death sentence
⬆️ Mansour Dehmardeh, born in 2000, son of Amanullah, with physical disabilities and unmarried, was arrested during the nationwide protests in Zahedan on October 3, 2021, and transferred to the city’s prison. In December of the previous year, he was initially sentenced to death by Branch 2 of the Criminal Court of Shahid Nouri in Zahedan on charges of “Corruption on Earth.” Despite his poor physical condition, he has been denied appropriate medical care in Zahedan Prison.
8- Jamshid Sharmahd
Prison Location: Unknown
Prominent Charges: Corruption on Earth (Ifsad fil-Arz) through leading an opposition group, planning and directing a bombing in Shiraz’s Hosseiniyeh
Issuing Court: Branch 15 of the Tehran Revolutionary Court
Latest Case Status: The death sentence confirmed by the Supreme Court
⬆️ The Ministry of Intelligence announced in August 2020 the arrest of Jamshid Sharmahd, an Iranian-German dual citizen born in 1955. The court sessions reviewing Mr. Sharmahd’s charges, held from February 7, 2022, to August 23, 2022, by Branch 15 of the Tehran Revolutionary Court presided by Judge Abolqasem Salavati, ultimately led to his death sentence in early March 2022 for “Corruption on Earth through planning and directing terrorist acts.” Masoud Setayeshi, the judiciary spokesperson, announced the confirmation of his death sentence by the Supreme Court on April 26, 2023. Ghazaleh Sharmahd, his daughter, previously stated that the family’s chosen lawyer was not allowed access to his case file, and her father has been forced to sign documents while being held in solitary confinement.
9- Mohammad Zeynoddini
Prison Location: Ward 9, Zahedan Prison
Prominent Charges: Moharebeh (waging war against God) through armed action related to the killing of three security forces
Issuing Court: Branch 1 of the Criminal Court of Zahedan
Latest Case Status: The death sentence confirmed by the Supreme Court
10- Adham Naroui
Prison Location: Ward 9, Zahedan Prison
Prominent Charges: Moharebeh (waging war against God) through armed action related to the killing of three security forces
Issuing Court: Branch 1 of the Criminal Court of Zahedan
Latest Case Status: The death sentence confirmed by the Supreme Court
⬆️Mohammad Zeynoddini and Adham Naroui were arrested by security forces in Lashar, a city in Sib and Suran County, in October 2020 and May 2021, respectively. Their case was later referred from Branch 6 of the Zahedan Prosecutor’s Office to Branch 1 of the Criminal Court of the province concerning the killing of three security forces. Eventually, these political prisoners were sentenced to death by Branch 1 of the Criminal Court of Zahedan in late 2022 for “Moharebeh through armed action.” This sentence was confirmed by the Supreme Court on November 20, 2023.
11- Mohammad Javad Vafaie Thani
Prison Location: Vakilabad Prison, Mashhad
Prominent Charges: Corruption on Earth (Ifsad fil-Arz) through arson and deliberate destruction of specific places
Issuing Court: Branch 2 of the Revolutionary Court of Mashhad
Latest Case Status: The case is currently being reviewed by Branch 9 of the Supreme Court

⬆️Seyed Mohammad Javad Vafaie Thani, a 28-year-old boxing coach, was arrested by security forces in Mashhad in March 2020 and transferred to Vakilabad Prison in Mashhad. This political prisoner was sentenced to death in December 2021 by Branch 4 of the Revolutionary Court of Mashhad for charges of “Corruption on Earth through arson and deliberate destruction of specific places, including the government’s Tazirat organization building.” The sentence was later overturned by one of the branches of the Supreme Court, and the case was referred to a parallel branch. Eventually, in early August 2023, after a retrial, Mr. Vafaie Thani was sentenced to death by Branch 2 of the Revolutionary Court of Mashhad. Babak Pak Nia, the defense lawyer for this political prisoner, recently stated: “The case of Mohammad Javad Vafaie Thani is being reviewed by Branch 9 of the Supreme Court, and as of the latest follow-up, no decision has been made regarding the annulment or confirmation of the initial verdict.”

12- Abbas Deris
Prison Location: Mahshahr Prison
Prominent Charges: Moharebeh (waging war against God)
Issuing Court: Branch 1 of the Revolutionary Court of Mahshahr
Latest Case Status: The death sentence confirmed by the Supreme Court and the request for retrial rejected by this judicial authority
⬆️Abbas Deris was arrested along with his brother Mohsen on December 8, 2019, by the intelligence agents of Abu al-Fadl al-Abbas headquarters. Mr. Deris was sentenced to death by Branch 1 of the Revolutionary Court of Mahshahr in late October 2021 for the charge of Moharebeh. This verdict was confirmed by Branch 39 of the Supreme Court in mid-July 2023. After filing a request for retrial in Branch 9 of the Supreme Court in August, an order was issued to halt the execution. Ultimately, the request for a retrial for Abbas Deris’s case was rejected by the Supreme Court in February 2024. Fereshteh Tabanian, a judiciary lawyer, stated: “We requested the application of Article 477, which is under review.” In another part of his case, Abbas Deris was sentenced by Branch 3 of the Criminal Court of Khuzestan Province for charges of premeditated murder and possession of a weapon to fourteen years in prison. Born in 1973 and a father of three, Deris, while admitting to participating in the protest gatherings on November 17, 2019, in Chamran town, has denied any involvement in burning tires and blocking roads in Chamran town.
13- Ahmadreza Jalali
Prison Location: Evin Prison
Prominent Charges: Espionage
Issuing Court: Unknown
Latest Case Status: The death sentence confirmed by the Supreme Court
⬆️Ahmadreza Jalali, a university professor and a political prisoner with dual nationality, was arrested by security forces during a trip to Iran after being invited by Tehran University in May 2016. He was eventually sentenced to death by a court for charges of espionage. This sentence was confirmed by the Supreme Court in December 2017. Zabihollah Khodaeian, the former judiciary spokesperson, announced in a press conference on May 10, 2021, that the death sentence for Ahmadreza Jalali, a dual-nationality prisoner, is final. The Iranian government has a documented history of using the charge of espionage as a tool against political opponents. Under no circumstances does espionage amount to the most serious crime as required under international law and as such it must never amount to the death penalty– any deprivation of life resulting from such charges is a grave violation of human rights.
14- Yousef Ahmadi
Prison Location: Sanandaj Prison
Prominent Charges: Rebellion (Baghy)
Issuing Court: Branch 1 of the Revolutionary Court of Sanandaj
Latest Case Status: The death sentence confirmed by the Supreme Court
⬆️Yousef Ahmadi, along with Mohammad Karimi, Basat Karimi, and Mohammad Faizi, was arrested in a joint case in early May 2020 on suspicion of “cooperation with one of the opposition Kurdish parties” by security forces. Branch 1 of the Revolutionary Court of Sanandaj, presided over by Judge Saeedi, sentenced Yousef Ahmadi in September 2023 for the charge of rebellion to death, and Mohammad Karimi, Basat Karimi, and Mohammad Faizi were respectively sentenced to twenty-five years, twenty years, and twenty years in prison for complicity in rebellion. The death sentence for Yousef Ahmadi was confirmed by Branch 39 of the Supreme Court in February 2024.
15- Mansour Rasouli
Prison Location: Urmia Prison
Prominent Charges: Espionage
Issuing Court: Revolutionary Court
Latest Case Status: The death sentence confirmed by the Supreme Court

⬆️Mansour Rasouli, along with Aran Omari, Rahman Parhazeh, Vafa Henareh, and Nasim Namazi, and five other defendants were arrested by security forces in November 2021. Ultimately, Mr. Rasouli, Omari, Parhazeh, Henareh, and Namazi were sentenced to death by the Revolutionary Court for charges of Moharebeh (waging war against God) and Corruption on Earth (Ifsad fil-Arz) through cooperation with Israeli intelligence to disrupt the country’s security. The other five defendants of this case, namely Kamran Henareh, Fakhroddin Dodkanlu Milan, Ashkan Osman Nejad, Hassan Omarpour, and Amir Moshtagh Gangchin, were each sentenced by the Revolutionary Court to ten years in prison and are currently serving their sentences in the political ward of Urmia Prison. Among the five prisoners sentenced to death, the sentences of Aran Omari, Rahman Parhazeh, Vafa Henareh, and Nasim Namazi were executed in Urmia Prison on December 29, 2022. Mansour Rasouli, one of the defendants in this case, returned to the general ward of the prison following a halt in the execution, which is said to be due to legal developments in his case. The Iranian government has a documented history of using the charge of espionage as a tool against political opponents. Under no circumstances does espionage amount to the most serious crime as required under international law and as such it must never amount to the death penalty– any deprivation of life resulting from such charges is a grave violation of human rights.

16- Naib Askari
Prison Location: Urmia Prison
Prominent Charges: Rebellion (Baghy)
Issuing Court: Branch 2 of the Revolutionary Court of Urmia
Latest Case Status: Re-issuance of the death sentence

⬆️Naib Askari was arrested by intelligence agents of the IRGC in Urmia on March 27, 2021. Mr. Askari was initially sentenced to death in absentia by Branch 2 of the Revolutionary Court of Urmia on April 15, 2023, for the charge of Moharebeh. After accepting his request for an appeal, the same branch, after several court sessions, changed his charge from Moharebeh to Baghy and re-sentenced him to death in late October 2023. Notably, the court sessions for Mr. Askari were held without the presence of his defense lawyer. His affiliation with one of the opposition Kurdish parties has been cited as a basis for his charges in this case.

17- Mehran Bahramian
Prison Location: Dastgerd Prison, Isfahan
Prominent Charges: Murder of a Special Unit officer
Issuing Court: Branch 22 of the Criminal Court of Isfahan
Latest Case Status: Issuance of the death sentence
18- Fazl Bahramian
Prison Location: Dastgerd Prison, Isfahan
Prominent Charges: Murder of a Special Unit officer
Issuing Court: Branch 22 of the Criminal Court of Isfahan
Latest Case Status: Issuance of the death sentence
⬆️Fazl Bahramian, Mehran Bahramian, Dariush Saedi, and Younes Bahramian were arrested on January 1, 2023, after participating in the fortieth-day memorial service for several victims of the protests, including Ali Abbasi, Morad Bahramian, Muslim Houshangi, and someone with the surname Asafi, under a joint case and were later transferred to Dastgerd Prison in Isfahan. Eventually, Fazl Bahramian and Mehran Bahramian were sentenced to death by Branch 22 of the Criminal Court of Isfahan, presided over by Judge Hemati, for the charge of “murdering Mohsen Rezaei, a Special Unit officer.” Dariush Saedi and Younes Bahramian, other defendants in this case, were each sentenced to sixteen years in prison for complicity in the murder of the said officer. The cases of these defendants are currently under review in the Supreme Court.
19- Ali Majdam
Prison Location: Shiban Prison, Ahvaz
Prominent Charges: Leadership and membership in a rebel group
Issuing Court: Revolutionary Court of Ahvaz
Latest Case Status: The death sentence is currently under review by the Supreme Court
20- Mohammadreza Moghadam
Prison Location: Shiban Prison, Ahvaz
Prominent Charges: Leadership and membership in a rebel group
Issuing Court: Revolutionary Court of Ahvaz
Latest Case Status: The death sentence is currently under review by the Supreme Court
21- Moein Khanfari
Prison Location: Shiban Prison, Ahvaz
Prominent Charges: Membership in a rebel group
Issuing Court: Revolutionary Court of Ahvaz
Latest Case Status: The death sentence is currently under review by the Supreme Court
22- Habib Deris
Prison Location: Shiban Prison, Ahvaz
Prominent Charges: Membership in a rebel group
Issuing Court: Revolutionary Court of Ahvaz
Latest Case Status: The death sentence is currently under review by the Supreme Court
23- Adnan Ghabishawi
Prison Location: Shiban Prison, Ahvaz
Prominent Charges: Membership in a rebel group
Issuing Court: Revolutionary Court of Ahvaz
Latest Case Status: The death sentence is currently under review by the Supreme Court
24- Salem Mousavi
Prison Location: Shiban Prison, Ahvaz
Prominent Charges: Membership in a rebel group
Issuing Court: Revolutionary Court of Ahvaz
Latest Case Status: The death sentence is currently under review by the Supreme Court

⬆️Ali Majdam, Mohammadreza Moghadam, Moein Khanfari, Habib Deris, Adnan Ghabishawi, and Salem Mousavi, six security defendants, were arrested by security forces in Khuzestan in mid-February 2019. Eventually, in March 2023, Ali Majdam and Mohammadreza Moghadam were sentenced to death for leadership and membership in the “military branch of the Arab Struggle Movement for the Liberation of Ahwaz” for armed confrontation against the foundation of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Moein Khanfari, Habib Deris, Adnan Ghabishawi, and Salem Mousavi were sentenced to death for membership in the mentioned group, also for armed confrontation against the foundation of the Islamic Republic of Iran, by the Revolutionary Court of Ahvaz, and the verdicts were confirmed by the Supreme Court.

25- Farhad Shakeri
Prison Location: Vakilabad Prison, Mashhad
Prominent Charges: Rebellion (Baghy) through membership in a Salafi group
Issuing Court: Branch 4 of the Revolutionary Court of Mashhad
Latest Case Status: The death sentence is currently under review by the Supreme Court
26- Eisa EidMohammadi
Prison Location: Vakilabad Prison, Mashhad
Prominent Charges: Rebellion (Baghy) through membership in a Salafi group
Issuing Court: Branch 4 of the Revolutionary Court of Mashhad
Latest Case Status: The death sentence is currently under review by the Supreme Court
27- Abdolrahman Gorgij
Prison Location: Vakilabad Prison, Mashhad
Prominent Charges: Rebellion (Baghy) through membership in a Salafi group
Issuing Court: Branch 4 of the Revolutionary Court of Mashhad
Latest Case Status: The death sentence is currently under review by the Supreme Court
28- Abdolhakim Azim Gorgij
Prison Location: Vakilabad Prison, Mashhad
Prominent Charges: Rebellion (Baghy) through membership in a Salafi group
Issuing Court: Branch 4 of the Revolutionary Court of Mashhad
Latest Case Status: The death sentence is currently under review by the Supreme Court
29- Taj Mohammad Khormali
Prison Location: Vakilabad Prison, Mashhad
Prominent Charges: Rebellion (Baghy) through membership in a Salafi group
Issuing Court: Branch 4 of the Revolutionary Court of Mashhad
Latest Case Status: The death sentence is currently under review by the Supreme Court
30- Malek Ali Fadaei Nasab
Prison Location: Vakilabad Prison, Mashhad
Prominent Charges: Rebellion (Baghy) through membership in a Salafi group
Issuing Court: Branch 4 of the Revolutionary Court of Mashhad
Latest Case Status: The death sentence is currently under review by the Supreme Court
⬆️Malek Ali Fadaei Nasab (a Shia citizen), Eisa EidMohammadi, Farhad Shakeri, Abdolhakim Azim Gorgij, Abdolrahman Gorgij, Abdolbaset Orsan, Mohammadreza Sheikh Ahmad, Morteza Fekoori, Hamid Rastbala, Kabir Saadat Jahani, Mohammad Ali Arayesh, and Taj Mohammad Khormali (Sunni citizens) were arrested in a joint case by the Intelligence Agency in 2015 and transferred to Vakilabad Prison, Mashhad, a year later. Eventually, in 2019, Branch 1 of the Revolutionary Court of Mashhad, presided over by Judge Mahmoud Davoudabadi, sentenced Hamid Rastbala, Farhad Shakeri, Kabir Saadat Jahani, Mohammad Ali Arayesh, Eisa EidMohammadi, Hakim Azim Gorgij, Abdolrahman Gorgij, Taj Mohammad Khormali, and Malek Ali Fadaei Nasab to death for charges of “Rebellion (Baghy) through membership in the Salafi group Al-Furqan Party and membership in the National Solidarity Front of Iran’s Sunnis.” Mohammadreza Sheikh Ahmad, Abdolbaset Orsan, and Morteza Fekoori were sentenced to 15 years in prison each for “Rebellion (Baghy) through membership in the Takfiri and Salafi group ISIS.” The execution sentences for Hamid Rastbala, Kabir Saadat Jahani, and Mohammad Ali Arayesh were carried out in Vakilabad Prison, Mashhad, in 2020. Later, the death sentences of the other six prisoners were overturned by Branch 41 of the Supreme Court, presided over by Judge Ali Razini, and the case was referred back for retrial. In early August 2023, Branch 4 of the Revolutionary Court of Mashhad, presided over by Judge Ahmad Salami, after a retrial, sentenced these prisoners to death again. The case of these prisoners detained in Ward 6.1 of Vakilabad Prison, Mashhad, is currently under review by Branch 39 of the Supreme Court.
31- Amir Rahim Pour
Prison Location: Evin Prison
Prominent Charges: Cooperation with a hostile government (USA)
Issuing Court: Unknown
Latest Case Status: The death sentence confirmed by the Supreme Court
⬆️Gholamhossein Esmaili, the former judiciary spokesperson, announced on February 4, 2020, the confirmation of the death sentence for Amir Rahim Pour, a master’s graduate in electrical engineering, for “cooperation with a hostile government, the USA” by the Supreme Court. Esmaili claimed that “this individual, while in contact with the spy agency, had received substantial sums of money as remuneration and attempted to provide a part of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s nuclear information to the American service.” It’s important to note that although combating espionage is not considered a violation of human rights, the Iranian government’s history of using this charge as a tool against political opponents and the issuance of death sentences, especially with unclear trial details and proceedings, are always viewed with skepticism.
32 – Malek Davarshan (Seyed Malek Mousavi)
Prison Location: Shiban Prison, Ahvaz
Prominent Charges: Rebellion (Baghy) through setting fire to a Basij base
Issuing Court: Branch 2 of the Revolutionary Court of Dezful
Latest Case Status: Issuance of the death sentence
⬆️Malek Davarshan (Seyed Malek Mousavi) was arrested in May 2021 along with a friend named Abbas Khazraji by security forces. After interrogations, Branch 2 of the Revolutionary Court of Dezful sentenced Mr. Davarshan to death for the charge of “Rebellion” and Mr. Khazraji to ten years in prison for “participation in disturbing public order.” The “attack and setting fire to the Basij Resistance Post of Shavur” was cited as one of the charges against Mr. Davarshan.
33- Ali Obeidavi
Prison Location: Mahshahr Prison
Prominent Charges: Attack on a Basij base
Issuing Court: Revolutionary Court of Mahshahr
Latest Case Status: Issuance of the death sentence
⬆️Ali Obeidavi was arrested in 2019 along with his brother, Hossein Obeidavi, by security forces with the charge of “attack on a Basij base.” After four years, the Revolutionary Court of Mahshahr sentenced Ali Obeidavi to death and his brother to thirteen years in prison.
34- Shahab Nadali Jozani
Prison Location: Evin Prison
Prominent Charges: Rebellion (Baghy) through membership in opposition group
Issuing Court: Tehran Revolutionary Court
Latest Case Status: Issuance of the death sentence
⬆️Shahab Nadali Jozani was arrested by the agents of the Intelligence Department in Hamedan on June 7, 2023. He was sentenced by Branch 26 of the Tehran Revolutionary Court, presided over by Judge Iman Afshari, to death for the charge of “rebellion through membership in opposition groups of the country (Mojahedin-e Khalq Organization)” and to five years of imprisonment for “assembly and collusion with the intent to commit a crime against the security of the country,” taking into account the time already served in detention.
35- Mohammad Khazrnejad
Prison Location: Urmia Prison
Prominent Charges: Corruption on Earth
Issuing Court: Branch 3 of the Urmia Revolutionary Court
Latest Case Status: Issuance of the death sentence
⬆️Mohammad Khazrnejad was arrested by security forces in Bukan on November 19, 2022, and subsequently transferred to Urmia Prison. He has recently been sentenced by Branch 3 of the Urmia Revolutionary Court, presided over by Judge Reza Najafzadeh, to execution and 16 years in prison for charges of corruption on Earth, acting against national security by damaging the country’s integrity or independence, and propaganda against the regime.

It is important to emphasize that the execution crisis in Iran extends far beyond the population of political prisoners. Spreading Justice (HRA’s database of human rights violators) recently published a report based on data from its statistics unit covering a decade of executions in Iran (from 2013 to 2023), documenting the execution of 4,829 citizens over this period. For more details on this report, please refer to the provided link.

 

*Update: This report was first published on February 9, 2024, listing the identities of 33 political-security prisoners sentenced to death. Following the issuance of the death penalty for Shahab Nadali Jozani and Mohammad Khazrnejad on February 10, their identities were added to the report as the thirty-fourth and thirty-fifth persons.

For more information please contact Skylar Thompson, Director of Global Advocacy and Accountability at Human Rights Activists in Iran (HRA) skylar[at]hramail.com

Jamshid Sharmahd Made a Phone Call to His Family after Seven Months Detention

After seven months of deprivation of having a phone call, Iranian-German national Jamshid Sharmahd was allowed to make a phone call to his family. Despite suffering from respiratory problems and blood pressure disorder due to long incarceration, he has been denied any adequate medical treatment. He has been detained for about 600 days and undergone interrogations routinely.

According to HRANA, the news agency of Human Rights Activists, Iranian-German national Jamshid Sharmahd was allowed to make a phone call to his family after seven months.

On her personal page on social media, Ghazaleh Sharmahd informed about his father’s phone call. According to her, Mr  Sharmahd is held in a solitary confinement cell and interrogated on a regular basis. He also suffers from blood pressure disorder. He has missed his teeth and only two teeth have been left. He also has problems walking due to being held for long in a confined space. He does not receive his medicine in a sufficient quantity or on time.

On March 6, 2022, the third court session of the Tehran’s Revolutionary Court headed by Judge Salavati, was held. The first and second court sessions had been held on February 6 and 20 of 2022.

On August 1, 2020, in a written statement, the Ministry of Intelligence announced his apprehension and claimed that he is one of the leaders of the anti-regime group known as Tondar group. In 2006, Sharmahd had claimed to be the leader of one of the Royal Association’s branches after Frood Fooladvand, founder of the Royal Association, abducted and disappeared in Turkey.

HRA Highlights Sixty-Nine Dual and Foreign Nationals Detained by Iran From 2003 to Present 

HRANA – HRA has compiled a list of sixty-nine dual and foreign nationals detained by Iran since 2003. The list illustrates a deeply flawed judiciary plagued with the ongoing use of arbitrary detention fueled by an extraordinary lack of due process. It is noteworthy that in recent years a number of these arrests have been made by Iran’s Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC). It is overwhelmingly clear that Iran continues to use dual and foreign nationals as political bargaining chips, often charging individuals in connection with espionage and citing national security concerns—with an alarming lack of evidence. HRA has documented extensive evidence of unfair trials, often conducted in a language the accused does not understand, with the denial of legal counsel, disproportionate sentencing, prolonged solitary confinement, and interrogations marred with torture leading to forced and sometimes televised confessions. The list goes on. The UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention has commented on Iran’s trend of detaining dual nationals confirming that a number of those detained were targeted based on their “nationality or social origin”. 

The detention of dual and foreign nationals is seemingly targeted and systematic and it must be widely condemned. Iran cannot be allowed to use human beings as players in its political chessboard. Despite the foreign ministries’ November 2021 guarantee vowing the safety of dual nationals traveling to Iran, the continued practice and failure to release those currently detained sends a starkly opposite message to Iranians that enjoy dual nationality. A message that it is not safe to return to Iran without a well-founded fear of detention. There is no secret that Iran views dual nationals in this way. The case of Nazanin Zarcari Radcliffe is an unfortunate example of just how serious Iran takes the game. They view Nazanin as ransom for a four-hundred million pound debt owed by the United Kingdom daring back to a 1979 arms deal. It has become clear that Nazanin’s freedom hinges on the payment of said funds. She is not alone. There must be sustained international pressure to release Nazanin and all dual and foreign nationals currently detained by Iran. It’s a dangerous game when politics become more important than the very lives politicians were elected to serve. 

In a letter written from prison, currently detained dual national, Siamak Namazi said Iran’s continued use of hostage diplomacy was like “sprinkl[ing] salt on the wound of distrust.” This is surely a shared sentiment in numerous diplomatic circles attempting to tackle the issue.  

The following list documents sixty-nine dual and foreign nationals detained by Iran from 2003 to the present day. A number of those detained were released prior to the completion of their sentence–illustrating the arbitrariness of the practice. Some were never fortunate enough to return home and ultimately faced execution at the hands of their abductors. While several have been released a number still await a strategic move on the chessboard that has, unfortunately, become their reality. American, British, and Canadian citizens account for the highest number of detentions among dual nationals–the highest number of detentions occurring in 2016. It is worth noting that the actual number of detentions may be higher than reported. Dual national detentions significantly outnumber that of foreign nationals reaffirming the widespread distrust in Iran’s commitment to the safety of dual nationals wishing to “return home”.

(*) denotes the individual remains imprisoned in Iran or otherwise has been denied the ability to return home.

1. Zahra “Ziba” Kazemi-Ahmadabadi

Date of Arrest: June 24, 2003
Date of Release: Killed by Iranian officials following her arrest
Nationality: Iranian-Canadian
Charges: Photographing restricted areas
Conviction: N/A

 


2. Stephane Lherbier

Date of Arrest: November 6, 2005
Date of Release: January 2007
Nationality: French
Charges: Unknown
Conviction:Unknown

 


3. Donald Klein

Date of Arrest:  November 6, 2005
Date of Release: January, 2007
Nationality: German
Charges: Unknown
Conviction: Unknown

 


4. Robert Alan Levinson

Date of Arrest: March 2007
Date of Release: Disappeared on March 9, 2007 on Kish Island, Iran
Nationality: American
Charges: Unknown
Conviction: Unknown

 


5. Haleh Esfandiari

Date of Arrest: May 8, 2007
Date of Release: August 21, 2007
Nationality: Iranian-American
Charges:  Acting against national security and acting to overthrow the regime
Conviction: Unknown

 


6. Hamid Ghasemi Shal

Date of Arrest: 2008
Date of Release: October 2013
Nationality: Iranian-Canadian
Charges: Espionage. In retrial, the charge was changed to assembly and collusion against national security
Conviction: Initially sentenced to death. Later, the verdict was reduced to 5 years imprisonment


7. Saeed Malekpour

Date of Arrest: October 2008
Date of Release: Released from prison before the end of his sentence
Nationality: Iranian-Resident of Canada
Charges: Cybercrime (Pornography)
Conviction: Life imprisonment

 


8. Hossein Derakhshan

Date of Arrest: November 1, 2008
Date of Release: November 19, 2015
Nationality: Iranian-Canadian
Charges: Collaboration with hostile countries, propaganda against the regime, advocating for anti-regime groups, blasphemy, setting up and directing websites with obscene content.
Conviction: 19 years and 6 months imprisonment, five year prohibition from membership and activity on social media


9. Roxana Saberi

Date of Arrest: January 31, 2009
Date of Release: May 11, 2009
Nationality: American
Charges: Espionage and gathering confidential and classified documents
Conviction: 2 years suspended imprisonment

 


10. Maziar Bahari

Date of Arrest: June 1, 2009
Date of Release:
October 13, 2009 
Nationality: 
Iranian-Canadian
Charges:
Assembly and collusion to act against national security, gathering and holding confidential and classified documents, propaganda against the regime, offensive statements against the Supreme Leader of Iran and the President, disturbing public order
Conviction:
13 years and six month imprisonment and 74 lashes


* 11. Fariba Adelkhah

Date of arrest: June 6, 2009
Date of release: Unknown
Citizenship: Iranian-French
Charges: Propaganda against the regime and collusion against national security
Sentence: 6 years and 6 months imprisonment

 


12. Clotilde Reiss

Date of Arrest: July 1, 2009
Date of Release: August 2009
Nationality: French
Charges: Espionage
Conviction: 5 years imprisonment, later changed to a fine when she left Iran on May 16, 2016

 


13. Kian Tajbakhsh

Date of Arrest: July 2009
Date of Release: March 13, 2010
Nationality: Iranian-American
Charges: Unknown
Conviction: 5 years imprisonment

 


14. Sarah Shourd

Date of Arrest: July 30, 2009
Date of Release: September 14, 2010
Nationality: American
Charges: Illegally entering the country and espionage
Conviction: Released on bail. She left Iran after her release.

 


15. Vahik Abramian

Date of Arrest: February 20, 2010
Date of Release: March 2011
Nationality: Iranian-Dutch
Charges: Preaching Christian beliefs
Conviction: One year in prison. He returned to the Netherlands after release.

 


16. Shane Bauer

Date of Arrest: September 14, 2010
Date of Release: December 27, 2011
Nationality: American
Charges: Illegally entering the country and espionage
Conviction: 8 years imprisonment

 


17. Josh Fattal

Date of Arrest: September 14, 2010
Date of Release: December 27, 2011
Nationality: American
Charges: Illegally entering the country and espionage
Conviction: 8 years imprisonment

 


18. Amir Mirza Hekmati

Date of Arrest: December 7, 2011
Date of Release: January 2016
Nationality: Iranian-American
Charges: Espionage
Conviction: Initially sentenced to death, later reduced to 10 years imprisonment. He was released through a prisoner swap with the U.S. Government


19. Masoud Karami

Date of Arrest: February 14, 2012
Date of Release: Unknown
Nationality: Iranian-Norwegian
Charges: Unknown
Conviction: Unknown

 


20. Saeed Abedini

Date of Arrest: September 2012
Date of Release: Mid-January 2016
Nationality: Iranian-American
Charges: Holding underground church services with the purpose of acting against national security
Conviction: 8 years in prison

 


21. Afshin Shafei

Date of Arrest: December 16, 2012
Date of Release: January 2013
Nationality: Iranian-Norwegian
Charges: Unknown
Conviction: Released on bail and left the country

 


22. Roya Saberi Nejad Nikbakht

Date of Arrest: September 28, 2013
Date of Release: Unknown
Nationality: Iranian-British
Charges: Blasphemy and offensive statements against the heads of three branches of government.
Conviction: 4 years imprisonment

 


23-30. Seven Unidentified Slovak Citizens

Date of Arrest: July 2013
Date of Release: September 2013
Nationality: Slovak
Charges: Espionage
Conviction: Unknown

 


31. Jason Rezaian 

Date of Arrest: July 22, 2014
Date of Release:
January 2016
Nationality:
Iranian-American
Charges:
Espionage and acting against national security
Conviction:
Released though a prisoner swap. In return, the U.S. government released three Iranian prisoners.


* 32. Hasan Rastegari Majd

Date of Arrest: October 27, 2014
Date of Release: Imprisoned in Urmia Prison
Nationality: Iranian-Turkish
Charges: In the first case, “propaganda against the regime through collaboration with an anti-regime group”. In the second case, “offensive statements and propaganda against the regime”. In the third case, “causing unrest in prison and clashing with prison guards”.
Conviction: 15 years imprisonment and revocation of Iranian citizenship for his first case. 2 years imprisonment for the second case and one year for the third.


33. Nosratollah (Farzad) Khosravi-Roodsari

Date of Arrest: 2014
Date of Release: January, 2016
Nationality: Iranian- American
Charges: Unknown
Conviction: Released through a prisoner swap with the U.S. Government.

 


34. Mostafa Azizi

Date of Arrest: February 1, 2015
Date of Release: April, 2016
Nationality: Iranian-Resident of Canada
Charges: Assembly and collusion against national security, propaganda against the regime, offensive statements against the Supreme Leader of Iran.
Conviction: 3 years and a fine


35. Nizar Zakka

Date of Arrest: 2015
Date of Release: June 11, 2019
Nationality: Lebanese citizen, US resident
Charges: Espionage and collaboration with hostile countries
Conviction: 10 years imprisonment and a fine of 4.2 million dollars


* 36. Siamak Namazi

Date of arrest: October 2015
Date of release:
N/A
Citizenship:
Iranian-American
Charges:
Collaborating with a hostile government (U.S.A.)
Sentence:
10 years imprisonment

 


37. Matthew Trevithick

Date of Arrest: December 8, 2015
Date of Release:
January 2016
Nationality:
American
Charges:
Espionage
Conviction:
Unknown

 


38. Sanya Bobnevich

Date of Arrest: December 13, 2015
Date of Release: January 2016
Nationality: Croatian-Swedish
Charges: Unknown
Conviction: Released on bail

 


39. Kamran Ghaderi

Date of arrest: December 2015
Date of release: N/A
Citizenship: Iranian-Austrian
Charges: Espionage
Sentence: 10 years imprisonment

 


40. Bagher Namazi

Date of Arrest: March 2016
Date of Release: Spring 2019. Released due to need for medical treatment.
Nationality: Iranian-American
Charges: Collaboration with a hostile country (U.S.A.)
Conviction: 10 years imprisonment

 


* 41. Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe

Date of Arrest: April, 2016
Date of Release: First case, March 2021. Second case, pending removal of travel ban restrictions.
Nationality: Iranian-British
Charges: First case, Collusion against the State. Second case, Propaganda against the regime.
Conviction: First case, 5 years imprisonment. Second case, 1-year imprisonment and 1-year travel ban


42. Ahmadreza Jalali

Date of Arrest: April 2016
Date of Release: N/A
Nationality: Iranian-Swedish
Charges: Espionage
Conviction: Executed

 


43. Homa Hoodfar

Date of Arrest: June 6, 2016
Date of Release: October 2016
Nationality: Iranian-Canadian
Charges: Unknown
Conviction: Unknown

 


44. Reza (Rabin) Shahini 

Date of Arrest: July 15, 2016
Date of Release: April 2017
Nationality: Iranian-American
Charges: Collaboration with Voice of America news channel (VOA) and appearance in their TV programs, propaganda against the regime in favor of anti-regime groups, membership in anti-regime groups such as the proponents of the re-establishing the monarchy in Iran, instigating people to disturb national security and offensive statements against former and current Supreme Leader of Iran.
Conviction: 18 years imprisonment, of which 9 years is enforceable. He was released on bail of 200 million tomans.


45. Afarin Neysari

Date of Arrest: July 20, 2016
Date of Release: Mid-July, 2018
Nationality: Iranian-American
Charges: Espionage
Conviction: 16 years imprisonment. Released on bail of 40 billion tomans

 


46. Karan Vafadari

Date of Arrest: July 20, 2016
Date of Release: Mid-July, 2018
Nationality: Iranian- American
Charges: Espionage
Conviction: 27 years imprisonment. Released on bail of 40 billion tomans

 


47. Xiyue Wang 

Date of Arrest: Summer 2016
Date of Release: November 2019
Nationality: Chinese-American
Charges: Espionage
Conviction: 10 years imprisonment. Released through a prisoner swap with the U.S. government in exchange for an Iranian Prisoner.

 


48. Abdolrasoul Dorri-Esfahani

Date of Arrest: August, 2016
Date of Release: Unknown
Nationality: Iranian-Canadian
Charges: Espionage and collaboration with the British Intelligence Service
Conviction: 5 years imprisonment

 


49. Anoosheh Ashoori

Date of Arrest: 2017
Date of Release: N/A
Nationality: Iranian-British
Charges: Spying for Israel and acquisition of illegitimate property
Conviction: 12 years imprisonment and fine of 33 thousand euros

 


* 50. Morad Tahbaz

Date of Arrest: January 24, 2018
Date of Release: Jailed in Evin Prison
Nationality: Iranian-American
Charges: Espionage
Conviction: 10 years imprisonment

 


51. Kavous Seyed-Emami

Date of Arrest: January 2018
Date of Release: Died in prison
Nationality: Iranian-Canadian
Charges: Espionage
Conviction: Unknown

 


52. Aras Amiri

Date of Arrest: March 2018
Date of Release: July 2021
Nationality: Iranian-British
Charges: Espionage
Conviction: 10 years imprisonment

 


53. Bahareh Amidi (Wife of Emad Sharghi)

Date of Arrest: April 4, 2018
Date of Release: 2018 (likely shortly after arrest)
Nationality: Iranian-American
Charges: Unknown
Conviction: Unknown

 


54. Abbas Edalat

Date of Arrest: April 15, 2018
Date of Release: January, 2019
Nationality: Iranian-British
Charges: Unknown
Conviction: Unknown

 


55. Michael White

Date of Arrest: July 1, 2018
Date of Release: June 4, 2020
Nationality: American
Charges: Offensive statements against the Supreme Leader of Iran and doxing.
Conviction: 10 years imprisonment

 


56. Kylie Moore Gilbert

Date of Arrest: Fall 2018
Date of Release: November 25, 2020
Nationality: Australian-British
Charges: Acting against national security
Conviction: 10 years imprisonment

 


57. Nelly Erin-Cambervelle

Date of Arrest: October 21, 2018
Date of Release:
February 24, 2019
Nationality:
French
Charges:
Allegedly signing an illegal mining contract
Conviction:
Unknown

 

 


58. Meimanat Hosseini-Chavoshi

Date of Arrest: November, 2018
Date of Release:
January, 2019
Nationality:
Iranian-Australian
Charges:
Collaboration with foreign countries, assembly and collusion against national security through conducting research on the decrease in birth rate
Conviction:
5 years imprisonment


59. Kamil Ahmadi

Date of Arrest: August 11, 2019
Date of Release: November 18, 2019
Nationality: Iranian-British
Charges: Acquisition of illegal wealth through collaboration with institutions hostile to the regime.
Conviction: 9 years imprisonment and a fine of 600,000 euros

 


60. Akbar Lakestani

Date of Arrest: September 28, 2019
Date of Release: November 13, 2019
Nationality: Iranian-American
Charges: Propaganda against the regime
Conviction: Released on bail. He left the country after his release.

 


61. Ruhollah Zam

Date of Arrest: October 2019
Date of Release: Executed
Nationality: Iranian-Resident of France
Charges: Spreading corruption on earth, launching and managing the Telegram channel “Amadnews” and “Sedaye Mardom” to disturb national security, spying for Israel and another country in the region, spying for the French intelligence service, collaborating with the U.S. government, assembly and collusion to act against national security, propaganda against the regime, membership in news outlet “Saham News” to with intent to disturb national security, instigating people, gathering classified information, spreading lies, Instigating military forces of the regime to revolt and disobey, blasphemy, and acquisition of illegal properties
Conviction: Death penalty

 


* 62. Yulia Yuzik

Date of Arrest: October 3, 2019
Date of Release:
October 10, 2019
Nationality:
Russian
Charges:
Espionage
Conviction:
Detained for one week. Left Iran immediately following her release.

 


* 63. Benjamin Briere

Date of Arrest: May 2020
Date of Release: N/A
Nationality: French
Charges: Espionage and propaganda against the regime
Conviction: 8 years imprisonment

 


* 64. Reza Eslami

Date of Arrest: May 10, 2020
Date of Release: Imprisoned
Nationality: Iranian-Canadian
Charges: Collaboration with hostile countries (U.S.A.) against the Islamic Republic of Iran through participation in educational courses about the Rule of Law in Czech Republic.
Conviction: 7 years imprisonment, prohibited from teaching and leaving the country.


* 65. Jamshid Sharmahd

Date of Arrest: August 2020
Date of Release: Unknown
Nationality: Iranian-German
Charges: Unknown
Conviction: Unknown

 


* 66. Nahid Taghavi

Date of Arrest: October 16, 2020
Date of Release: N/A
Nationality: Iranian-German
Charges: Participation in forming unlawful groups and “propaganda against the regime.
Conviction: 10 years and 8 months imprisonment

 


67. Emad Sharghi

Date of Arrest: Fall 2020
Date of Release: N/A
Nationality: Iranian-American
Charges: Espionage and gathering military intelligence
Conviction: 9 years imprisonment and a fine of 600,000 euros

 


68. Tavakoli

Date of Arrest: Unknown
Date of Release: Unknown
Nationality: Dual Nationalities
Charges: Espionage
Conviction: 8 years and 6 months imprisonment

 


* 69. Habib Chaab

Date of Arrest: November 2021
Date of Release:
Unknown
Nationality:
Iranian-Swedish
Charges:
Spreading corruption on earth, leading an anti-regime group, attemptign to sabotage public and private places and planning terrorism operations, destruction of public property
Conviction:
Unknown

_________________________

For further inquiries please contact Skylar Thompson, Senior Advocacy Coordinator Human Rights Activists in Iran (HRA) at [email protected]

Jamshid Sharmahd Still Detained in Unknown Location After 10 Months

Iranian-German dual citizen Jamshid Sharmahd is still in detention after 10 months.

According to HRANA, the news agency of Human Rights Activists, quoting VOA, Sharmahd’s daughter Ghazaleh stated that the Islamic regime has not allowed the lawyer selected by the family to access the case.

Per Ghazeleh’s account, case prosecutor Shah Mohammadi introduced a lawyer to her father and informed him that “only this lawyer can access the case”. Ghazaleh added, “Someone who introduced himself as ‘Dordi Zadeh, the lawyer’” has contacted the family and claimed that he will represent Mr. Sharmahd for 250 thousand dollars.

Ghazaleh Sharmahd emphasized that they cannot afford this amount.  “We do not think this Dordi Zadeh will cooperate effectively,” the daughter said. “We wanted the authorities to allow my father’s independent lawyer to access the case. Neither the consulate nor the lawyer–no one can access my father.”

In August 2020, the Iranian Ministry of Intelligence announced Sharmahd’s arrest. In 2006, Sharmahd claimed to be the leader of one of the Royal Association’s branches after Frood Fooladvand, founder of the Royal Association, disappeared in Turkey.

Sharmahd’s whereabouts and fate are unknown at the time of this writing.