Statistical Report on Human Rights in Iran for the Year 1401 Hijri

Human Rights Activists News Agency (HRANA)- During the year 1401 Hijri, human rights violations continued steadfastly. HRANA reported a variety of these violation cases including:

– infringing on the freedom of expression,
– the deadly crackdown on peaceful protests,
– arbitrary harassment and prosecution of ethnic, and religious minorities, human rights defenders,
– executing juvenile offenders,
– failure to protect women and gender minorities against violence,
– prosecution of and long sentence against dual and foreign nationals,
– holding prisoners in harsh and inhuman conditions in ill-equipped prisons and detention centres,
– mistreating and torturing prisoners during interrogation,
– imposing cruel inhumane punishments such as flogging, and
– sending political prisoners to prisons in exile.


Based on data collected from 13631 reports registered by the Statistics and Publication Center of Human Rights Activists in Iran (HRA), in the year 1401 Hijri (a period from March 21, 2022, to March 16, 2023), 29688 people were arrested for their protests, political activities, or the expression of their beliefs and opinions.
A major part of these arrests occurred during the 2022 nationwide protests known as the “woman, life, freedom” movement.

This list of detainees includes:

– 28,419 people arrested for exercising their rights to freedom of expression
– 193 minors
– 56 workers and workers’ rights activists
– 258 trade union activists
– 169 people of religious minorities
– 328 women’s rights activists
– 6 people for cultural activities
– 24 environmental activists
– 235 ethnic minorities*

*From the people listed in the category of ethnic minorities, the allegations against 192 detainees are unknown. However, considering HRA’s knowledge of the security institutions in any given area, these arrests have been included in this category.

In addition to these detainees, police/security forces arrested 34 people in blatant violation of citizens’ privacy rights to live their life as they desire without interference by the state. These people were arrested for adopting a lifestyle or holding private parties deemed unacceptable by the regime.


In the reporting period, the public and Revolutionary Courts across Iran opened 1075 legal cases against defendants facing political and national security charges. The Court issued a combined total of 31164 months in prison and 2507 months of suspended imprisonment. They also fined these defendants amounting to a combined total of 11,101,000,000 tomans. (approx. 227,000 USD at the time of writing)


Given that in Iran, many child abuse cases are silenced by families and government institutions, the available statistics do not reflect an accurate depiction of the issue. Nonetheless, at least 25115 child abuse cases, 38 cases of sexual abuse and rape, 47 cases of juvenile homicide, 2 cases of juvenile honor killings, 3 self-immolations, 52 suicide attempts and over 20 thousand child marriages have been reported in the last Hijri year. In addition, over 5 million children dropped out of school.

The Iranian Scientific Association of Social Work (ISASW) estimates at least 30,000 children are active in the workforce. As many experts have noted, however, the real numbers are much higher. Unfortunately, there is no accurate data on the number of child laborers due to the activities of organized crime institutions and the government’s failure to tackle this issue.

Cruel Punishments

In the last year, Iran’s judicial system did not take any steps to halt “inhuman,” corporal punishments which are in blatant violation of fundamental human rights and dignity. During this year, three mutilation punishments were carried out and one other is ruled.

In addition, the courts issued a combined total of 9911 lashes. 450 lashes were carried out in the given period.

Women’s Rights

This year, women did not also witness any improvement in their rights. Aside from widespread gender discrimination and inequality in law and society, 54 reports of domestic violence were registered, and at least 39 women were murder victims of domestic violence. 11 women were beaten, assaulted and injured by the morality police or religious vigilantes imposing the so-called proper Hijab in the public. There were also registered 4 acid attacks, 8 rapes and/or sexual assaults, 8 suicides, 4 female self-immolations, and 14 honor killings.

Use of Lethal Force against Citizens

In the given period, a total of 752 citizens were shot by the regime’s military forces, of which 474 lost their lives. It includes 21 Kolbars (poor workers carrying loads on foot across national borders), 13 Sukhtbar (poor people who carry fuel illegally across the border), and 440 other civilians. 278 people were injured in unrestrained shooting by police and military forces, of the injured, 133 people were Kolbars, 12 Sukhtbar, and 133 other civilians.

Additionally, 28 Kolbars were affected by climate and geographic factors such as freezing temperatures and falling from heights. In these accidents, 26 Kolbars were injured and 2 ultimately died.

It is of note that landmine blasts took the life of at least 8 citizens and maimed 19 others during this year. Most of these landmines are the remnants of the Iran-Iraq War. The Regime still shirks its responsibility to clear these landmines, endangering the lives of its citizens living adjacent to the mine-affected areas.


As one of the world’s top executioners, Iran’s regime executed at least 617 people, increasing 80% compared to the last Hijri year. Among these executed people, 13 are women, and 6 are juvenile offenders who were under the age of 18 at the time of committing the crime. Two executions were carried out publicly.
This year, the courts sentenced 136 defendants to the death penalty, of which 6 were sentenced to be hanged publicly.

Prisoners’ Rights

Based on reports obtained by HRANA, during During the year 1401 Hijri, 123 prisoners have been victims of physical assault, 5465 prisoners were deprived of adequate medical care, 223 inmates were held in solitary confinement cells, 116 went on hunger strike as a last resort to achieve urgent demands, 169 prisoners were forcefully sent to a prison in exile, 5845 inmates were threatened or subjected to pressure, 50 inmates were denied visitation, 16 inmates died in prison by diseases, 14 inmates committed suicide, one committed self-immolation, 3 inmates were killed by prison guards/officials, 5845 prisoners were denied access to a lawyer, 5501 inmates were held in harsh and inhuman conditions, 424 prisoners were forced to make confessions, 2770 inmates were denied necessary medical furlough. In 478 cases, detainees were held in unknown places and conditions, and 1316 were held in prolonged detention in uncertainty regarding legal proceedings.

Workers’ Rights

During the given period, at least 205,687 workers were laid off or fired. 1,287 were killed and 4324 injured in workplace accidents. Moreover, 4733 workers were unjustly suspended from work, and 1,705,089 workers were without work insurance. There were also a reported 6 factory closures. In addition, at least 19,444 workers reported delays in payments, amounting to a combined 769 months’ wages.

Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and Association

In the given period, 2,825 protest rallies were held in 31 provinces, including 247 workers’ rallies, 801 union rallies, 1,352 protest gatherings against issues revolving around the suppression of freedom of expression, 43 student rallies, 10 rallies held by religious minorities, 8 rallies over women’s rights and issues, 247 held by environmental activists, and 117 held by the victims of financial frauds or other fraudulent acts. Additionally, 116 labour strikes and 398 union strikes were staged.

Concluding Note

Iran’s regime does not allow independent human rights organizations to report and collect data freely. As a result, these figures, even though alarming, reveal merely the tip of the iceberg of the human rights situation in Iran. Therefore, it is noteworthy to mention that the figures provided in this report are merely based on the reports of civil society organizations like HRANA and its Statistics and Publication Center.

For more comprehensive data and statistics, read HRANA Annual Analytical and Statistical Report on Human Rights in Iran for the year 2022. Download the full report in pdf format.


International Women’s Day: An Overview on Women Rights and Its Defenders in Iran

In many countries, International Women’s Day, celebrated on March 8, is designated to commemorate women’s historical struggle for rights, honor their sacrifices and celebrate their cultural and political achievements. The Islamic Republic of Iran, however, refuses to follow this path. The regime never agreed to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, and its law blatantly violates the most fundamental rights of women, including the right of women to make decisions relating to their bodies and clothing choices, as well as equal opportunities in both social and economic realms.

According to HRANA, the news agency of Human Rights Activists, in the absence of any protective laws and punishments against “honor killings”, both domestic and non-domestic violence against women is widespread. Women’s rights defenders and gender equality advocates are frequently subjected to pressure and arbitrary detention by regime security forces, leading to prosecution, unfair trials and convictions by judicial authorities. Currently, many women’s rights activists await verdicts, and others are serving sentences in prison— often in the same ward as prisoners of violent crimes, jeopardizing their safety.

According to HRANA’s Annual Analytical and Statistical Report on Human Rights in Iran, based on 90 registered reports by the Department of Statistics, at least 43 women reported physical and sexual abuse in the last year. In addition, there were 24 reported cases of honor killings, eight self-immolations, three acid attacks, and four cases where women’s rights activists were summoned to judicial and security organizations. There were 20,187 reported cases of domestic abuse against women and 13 murders. This report also details that seven women were detained for reasons related to women’s rights and at least four women’s rights activists were sentenced to a total of 282 months in prison.

It is worth mentioning that this data is merely collected from media reports. The real figures are likely much higher and more daunting, as many domestic violence cases are never reported to legal authorities.

Women’s Rights Violations

Honor Killings:  An honor killing is the murder of an individual, often a girl or woman, by a family member or relative in an attempt to restore the honor of the family. The victim’s act, such as refusing forced marriage, being the victim of a rape, getting a divorce, or adultery, is deemed traditionally or religiously shameful or dishonorable by the family or community.

In Iran’s law system, the punishment for murder is usually decided by the “blood avenger”, most often the father, as he is the first degree male relative. Consequently, the perpetrator in an honor killing is either identical to or related to the blood avenger. Thanks to this legal flaw, many honor killers get away without heavy punishment.

For example, Romina Ashrafi, age 13, was beheaded by her father in an honor killing. His father was sentenced to nine years in prison, which is considered a light sentence compared to the death penalty, normally a routine punishment for homicide in Iran.

Violence Against Girls and Women- Iran is one of the four countries in the world that has not recognized the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. Through the efforts of a number of women’s rights activists, a bill known as the Protection, Dignity, and Security of Women Against Violence was approved by the government on January 3, 2021. However, when the bill was drafted in Hassan Rouhani’s first cabinet, 40 of the 90 articles of the bill were removed. Former Vice President for Women and Family Affairs, Masoumeh Ebtekar, announced that the bill was not presented Parliament for approcal five months after the approval of the cabinet. Recently, Shiva Ghasemipour of the Women’s Faction in Parliament announced that the bill was handed over to the Judiciary for further review.

Bodily Autonomy- In February of 2022, the Medical Equipment Department imposed a regulation whereby pharmacies all over the country were prohibited to provide contraceptives pills without a prescription. The regulation addresses department deputies at medical universities, prohibiting them from distributing free or subsidized birth control or contraceptive implantation. It also prohibits the promotion of contraceptive pills and treatments. In an effort to implement the Rejuvenation of The Population And Support of Family bill such regulations aim to make birth control and abortion harder for women to access. These restrictions on providing contraceptive pills, contraceptive-related services and strict rules against abortion blatantly violate the inalienable rights of women to make decisions relating to their bodies and increase the risk of sexually transmitted diseases and vaginal cancer.

Forced Veiling- Among other restrictions, forcing women to wear a veil is one of the most flagrant violations of women’s rights. As UN Human Rights Council asserts, any coercion pertaining to women’s clothes signifies the blatant violation of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights by the government. Nonetheless, Iran’s regime, both in law and practice, not only forces women to wear a veil but also prosecutes and suppress women who oppose the compulsory veil. While Iran’s law cites punishments ranging from a fine of 50,000 tomans to two months imprisonment, citizens are in practice faced with more serious and groundless accusations such as “spreading corruption on earth” which can be punishable up to 10 years in prison. All these penalties stand in violation of Article 9 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

Right to Education- According to the Society for Protecting the Rights of the Child’s CEO, in Iran, about one million children in poor areas are deprived of school. From them, 49,000 children are barred from education due to either lacking birth certificates or being forced to work. These numbers vary wildly each year. For example, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of children out of school tripled.

Besides poverty, lack of birth certificates and child labour, some girls are barred from school by families who are adhere to traditional norms and prejudices. In 2020, 4142 girls left school because of child marriage or family disallowance.

Cultural Rights- Iran’s regime prohibits women from dancing and singing in the public, which violates Article 15 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which asserts the right of everyone to take part in cultural activities. Despite women being legally allowed to be in sports stadiums, they face many obstructions by authorities in practice.

Marriage and Family Rights- In violation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which asserts the abolition of any gender discrimination in the law system, Iranian women are legally subjected to discrimination in many aspects of their family life, such as divorce and child custody. Married women require their husband’s permission to receive passports and leave the country.. Additionally, they do not have the right to choose where they live. The law allows the man to bar his wife from working outside the home if he considers the work in conflict with “family values”. In addition, as a duty of marriage, women are obliged to satisfy their husband’s sexual desires, arguably denying the right to consent during marital intercourse.

The UN Human Rights Council has stated that these discriminative laws violate Article 23.4 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.

Women’s Rights Activists

Convicted (But Not Imprisoned) Women’s Rights Activists


Tahmineh Mofidi

On January 2, 2021, women’s rights activist Tahmineh Mofidi was arrested by IRGCS intelligence agents at her house and transferred to Ward 2-A of Evin Prison On February 2, 2021, she was released on bail of 1.5 billion tomans until the end of legal proceedings. Thereafter, Branch 26 of the Revolutionary Court of Tehran sentenced her to three years and seven months in prison and a fine of 15 million tomans on charges of “acting against national security through assembly and collusion” and “promotion of sexual perversion on social media”. Based on her refusal to appeal, as well as Article 34 of the Islamic Penal Code where only the severest punishment from multiple counts is enforceable, the verdict was reduced to a fine of 37 million tomans.

During the trial, actions such as writing the stories of women who have been the victim of sexual assault, advocating for a symbolic protest against the compulsory veil known as “Girls of Enghelab Street”, and coaching without a veil were invoked to support these charges. Initially, she was also accused of “promoting impurity and indecency ” which later was changed to “promotion of sexual perversion on social media”.


Imprisoned Women’s Rights Activists


Yasaman Aryani and Monireh Arabshahi

Yasaman Aryani and her mother Monireh Arabshahi, both civil activists and outspoken opponents of the forced veil, are currently serving sentences in Kachooie Prison in Karaj City. On April 10, 2019, one day after the arrest of her mother, Aryani was arrested and transferred to Qarchak Prison in Varamin City. They both were relocated to Evin Prison on August 13, 2019, and transferred again on October 21, 2021 to Kachooie Prison in Karaj.

On August 7, 2021, each was sentenced to 16 years in prison on the charge of “propaganda against the regime” and “provoking impurity and indecency”. These verdicts were reduced for each to nine years and seven months in prison. Per 134 of the Islamic Penal Code, the severest punishment of five years and six months is enforceable. Arabshahi is still imprisoned and denied adequate medical treatment, despite being certified intolerant of punishment, and both an endocrinologist and neurologist asserting her need for lumbar disc and thyroid surgery.

On February 23, Aryani, who is co-housed with prisoners of violent crimes, was beaten by some fellow prisoners.


Saba Kord Afshari and Raheleh Ahmadi

Civil activists Saba Kord Afshari and her mother Raheleh Ahmadi were arrested on June 1 and July 10 2019, respectively. On August 27, 2019, Afshari was sentenced to 15 years imprisonment on the charge of “promoting corruption and obscenity by appearing without a headscarf in public”, one year and six months on the charge of “propaganda against the regime” and seven years and six months on the charge of “assembly and collusion to act against national security”, totaling 24 years imprisonment.

This verdict was increased two and half times more due to a previous record, before finally being corrected in March of last year and reduced from 15 years to 7 years and 6 months. Per Article 134 of the Islamic Penal Code, the severest punishment of seven years and six months is enforceable.

On January 26, 2021, she was violently relocated from Ward 8 to Ward 6 of Qarchak Prison. Currently, she is held in the same ward as prisoners of violent crimes, which violates Iran prison rules.

On December 10, 2019, Ahmadi was sentenced to three years and six months in prison on charges of “assembly and collusion against national security through collaboration with anti-regime media” and eight months on the charge of “propaganda against the regime”. Ahmadi was granted medical furlough after contracting COVID-19 on February 16. Afshari was also granted short term furlough one day after she was beaten by a prisoner of violent crime on February 20, and was therefore able to meet her mother on furlough.

Aliye Motallebzadeh

On November 26, 2016, Aliye Motallebzadeh, photographer and women’s rights defender, was arrested during her appearance at the Ministry of Intelligence office after phone summons. She was detained in Ward 209 at the Ministry of Intelligence’s disposal until December 19 2016, when she was released on bail of 300 million tomans until the end of legal proceedings.

The Revolutionary Court of Tehran sentenced her to three years imprisonment for the charges of “assembly and collusion against national security” and “propaganda against the regime.” This verdict was upheld by Branch 36 of the Court of Appeals.

On October 11, 2020, Motallebzadeh was sent to Evin Prison to serve her sentence after appearing at Evin Courthouse. On January 10, she was transferred to Qarchak Prison in Varamin City to serve the rest of her sentence in exile. On February 23, she was granted medical furlough after contracting COVID-19.


Women’s Rights Activists Who Are Awaiting Imprisonment


Nahid Shaghaghi, Akram Nasirian, Maryam Mohammadi and Asrin Darkaleh

All four activists were arrested by security forces; Akram Nasirian on April 29, 2019, Nahid Shaghaghi on May 15, 2019, Maryam Mohammadi on July 8, 2019 and Asrin Darkaleh on July 28, 2019. They all were released on bail from May to August. Branch 24 of the Revolutionary Court of Tehran, headed by Judge Iman Afshari, sentenced the activists to a total of 16 years and 8 months imprisonment. Per Article 134 of the Islamic Penal Code, the severest punishment of three years sentence on one count was enforceable for each. This was later reduced on appeal to two years and three months each. Recently, they were summoned by the Executive Unit of Evin Courthouse to serve their sentences.


Raha (Raheleh) Askarizadeh

On November 28, 2019, journalist, photographer and women’s rights activist Raha (Raheleh) Askarizadeh was arrested at Imam Khomeini International Airport while leaving the country. On December 31 of that year, she was released on bail until the end of legal proceedings. Initially, the Revolutionary Court of Tehran sentenced her to two years imprisonment, a two year ban from leaving the country and a two year prohibition from political activities in media, political groups and social media. The verdict was upheld on appeal. In April of 2021, she was summoned by the Executive Unit of Evin Courthouse to serveher sentence.


Najmeh Vahedi and Hoda Amidi

On September 1, 2018, women’s rights activists, Najmeh Vahedi and Hoda Amidi were arrested by IRGC intelligence agents and then released on bail in November of that year. For the charge of “collaboration with the hostile country (U.S.) against the regime regarding women and family issues”, the Revolutionary Court of Tehran sentenced Hoda Amidi to eight years imprisonment, two years prohibiti

on of membership in political groups and parties, prohibition of political activities in media and on the internet, two years ban from leaving the country, two years prohibition of the exercise of the profession as a la

wyer. For the same charge, Najmeh Vahedi was sentenced to seven years imprisonment, two years prohibition of membership in political groups and parties, prohibition of political activities in media and on the internet, two years ban from leaving the country.

These verdicts were upheld on appeal. Running the educational workshops for women on setting out preconditions in marriage such as having the right to divorce (in order to restore the denied rights on divorce for women), was invoked during the trial as examples of the above-mentioned charges.


Atsa Ahmadai Rafsanjani

On January 20, 2019, the Baha’i resident of Tehran was arrested by security forces at her house and transferred to a solitary confinement cell in Ward 241 of Evin Prison at the disposal of the Judiciary’s counterintelligence. On March 6, 2019, she was released on bail of 200 million tomans until the end of legal proceedings. In May 2021, Branch 26 of the Revolutionary Court of Tehran sentenced her to four years imprisonment on the charge of “formation of a group to act against national security through registering an NGO on women empowerment”, three years in prison on the charge of “assembly and collusion to act against national security”, and one year in prison on the charge of “propaganda against the regime”.

She was condemned for the first charge despite the Ministry of Interior had already rejecting her request to form an NGO due to being Baha’i. If the verdict is upheld on appeal, four years imprisonment for the first count is enforceable per Article 134 of the Islamic Penal Code.



For further inquiries please contact Skylar Thompson, Senior Advocacy Coordinator Human Rights Activists in Iran (HRA) at

Aliyeh Motallebzadeh’s Request for Release on Probation Rejected

Aliyeh Motallebzadeh’s request for release on probation was recently rejected in a written notification by the Tehran prosecutor’s office.

According to HRANA, the news agency of Human Rights Activists, the photographer and women’s rights activist is currently enduring a two-year sentence in Evin Prison in Tehran.

On November 26, 2016, Motallebzadeh was summoned to the office of the ministry of intelligence and subsequently was detained in Ward 209 of Evin Prison. On December 19, 2016, she was released on bail of 300 million tomans.

In 2017, the Revolutionary Court of Tehran sentenced Motallebzadeh to three years in prison on charges of  “assembly and collusion to act against national security” and “propaganda against the regime”.

This verdict was upheld by Branch 36 of the court of Appeals in Tehran. In the issued lawsuit, “launching and participating in women empowerment workshop in abroad” had been invoked as an example of these charges. Grounded on Article 134 of the Islamic Penal Code, a severest punishment of two years was enforceable for her.

On October 11, 2020, Motallebzadeh arrived at Evin prison to begin her sentence, where she has been held since.

On April 26, 2021, she was punitively deprived of making phone calls after her complaints about the practice of holding detainees in solitary confinements in the prosecutor’s office of this prison.

On July 19, 2021, after contracting COVID, she was granted furlough and went on leave until August 30.

Aliyeh Motallebzadeh is a photographer, women rights activist and a member of the One Million Signatures Campaign for Gender Equality as well as a campaign to protect acid attack victims.


Female Worker Dead After Veil Caught in Machinery at Factory

On the evening of Saturday, November 5, a 21-year-old worker lost her life in a workplace accident in a factory after her veil was caught in machinery.

According to HRANA, the news agency of Human Rights Activists, quoting ILNA, Marzieh Taherian was killed in the spinning factory Nasaji Kavir Semnan, located in the industrial zone on the east of Semnan City

As her coworkers stated, the veil, which female workers are forced to wear despite being unsuitable for work conditions and safety issues, became caught in a ring spinning machine, and pulled her head inside the machine.

This horrific work accident has raised again many criticisms about strict forced veil rules, which have long caused discomfort and hazards for women in the workplace.

Father Legally Bars 12-year-old Daughter From Attending World Equestrian Championship Abroad

12-year-old athlete Sara Pour-Azima was barred from participating in the World Equestrian Championships because her father legally banned her from leaving the country.

According to HRANA, the news agency of Human Rights Activists, Pour-Azima was scheduled to leave for Russia his week with the rest of her team.

Mehrdad Mehravin, the lawyer of Sara’s mother, said the young athlete’s parents are currently embroiled in a legal battle regarding alimony, and that the father’s move to ban Sara from travel was part of an ongoing dispute with Sara’s mother. Sara reportedly found out that she had been barred from travel to the Championships upon arriving at the airport.

Given the importance of the trip in the athlete’s success and future, legal action was taken to obtain permission from the prosecutor so that Sarah could travel, but legal authorities did not ultimately issue an allowance for her to leave the country.

In Iran, before getting married, women need the legal permission of a father or paternal grandfather to leave the country, and the permission of a husband after marriage.

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Iranian Women Want to Use Motorcycles: Nearly 6000 People Sign Campaign Calling on Parliament to Remove Barriers to Issuance of Licenses

Over the past few days nearly 6,000 people have signed a campaign calling on the speaker and members of Parliament to remove barriers surrounding the issuance of motorcycle licenses to Iranian women.

According to HRANA, the news agency of Human Rights Activists, quoting the Asr-e-Iran, citizens wrote in the statement, “We, the women of this land, demand one of our most basic citizenship rights: the use of vehicles such as motorcycles.”

In light of the staggering increase in car prices in recent years and the inability of many women to afford them,  the petition calls on lawmakers to take appropriate action as soon as possible to oversee the proper implementation of anti-discriminatory laws and regulations.

Years ago, Branch 31 of the Administrative Court of Justice passed a ruling that obligated the NAJA traffic police to “issue motorcycle licenses for qualified women”,  but police appealed the vote on the grounds that, according to Article 20 of the Traffic Violations Law, driver’s license issuance falls under their jurisdiction. In this law, the qualifications for obtaining a license are explained in detail, but there is no mention of gender. So while there is no explicit legal discrimination on the basis of sex,  the very police forces tasked with enforcing the process have a pattern of making it very difficult for women to receive their certification.

The day after a photo of the women riding a motorcycle in Tabriz was published, Masoumeh Ebtekar, Vice President for Women and Family Affairs, put it plainly on her Instagram: “[The motorcycle] is a good vehicle for women as long as safety instructions are followed.”

Unlike driving, motorcycle riding is considered by some conservative Muslims to violate principles of female modesty. The campaign attempts to debunk the notion that Islamic practices are necessarily at odds with women utilizing this convenient and affordable mode of transportation.  The signatories wrote in a statement addressed to the speaker of the Parliament, “In the history of Islam, many chaste women were involved in equestrianism and there was no jurisprudential denial based on this practice.”

It is worth mentioning that this campaign is currently collecting signatures at the site linked below: (