Four Convicts Executed in Borujerd, Birjand and Yazd Prisons

Four inmates convicted of murder and drug-related crimes were executed in Borujerd, Birjand, and Yazd Prisons.  

According to HRANA, the news agency of Human Rights Activists, quoting Haal Vsh, on July 21, 2022, two inmates identified as Zabihllah Barahooi, age 38, and Abdolvahed Qanbarzehi, age 41, were executed in Birjand Prison.

On the same day, a prisoner identified as Heydar Hiboorzadeh, age 29, was executed in Yazd Central Prison.

Iran Human Rights Organization also reported the execution of Payman Goodarzi, age 27, on July 11, 2022, in Borujerd.

The most recent report from the Statistics and Publication Center of the Human Rights Activists  (HRA) states that between January 1 of 2021 and December 20 of 2021, at least 299 citizens, including four juvenile offenders, were executed. In addition, 85 citizens were sentenced to death in this period. 

As the report points out, Iran’s judicial authorities do not publicly announce over 88% of executions. These unreported executions are known as “secret executions” by human rights organizations.

Report on Current Nationwide Protests: Hundreds Arrested; Dozens Killed and Injured

During the last two weeks, triggered by food price hikes, nationwide protests erupted in more than 31 cities across 10 provinces. HRANA, the news agency of Human Rights Activists, has recorded 53 demonstrations so far. 

According to HRANA, on Friday, May 6, 2022, following the government’s decision to cut subsidies on essential food items such as dairy products, flour, cooking oil, chicken, and eggs leading to soaring prices, the call for rallying against soaring prices went viral on social media. In the following days, several protests broke out in Khuzestan Province and soon swept through numerous cities across the country.

Prior to these protests, a series of protests and gatherings of teachers, labor workers and the retirees who had lost their pensions due to the government’s risky financial decisions had been sweeping across the country leading to dozens being arrested.

The new rounds of protests sparked initially in Susangerd City and other neighboring cities in Khuzestan Province. In the following days, at least 30 Arab-speaking citizens were arrested by security forces.

Soon after, the protests spread to other cities and provinces. The videos received from citizen journalists indicate that the protestors chanted slogans against inflation as well as the Iranian regime leaders, including President Ebrahim Raeisi and Supreme Leader Seyyed Ali Khamenei.

The map below shows the locations where the protests were.

As the map shows, the protests took place in the following cities: Izeh, Susangerd, Hamidieh, Ahvaz, Mahshahr, Masjed Soleiman, Shadegan, Jarahi Town Mahshahr, Dorud, Andimeshk, Dezful, Shahrekord, Junaqan, Fashafouyeh, Yasuj, Ardabil, Farsan, Khorramabad, Dehdasht, Borujerd, Suq, Yazd, Golpayegan, Cholicheh, Rasht, Neyshabur, Surshjan, Hafshejan, Babaheydar, Karevan Town and Pordanjan.

In total, 53 protests have been recorded. Moreover, 45 times, the attempts to start a protest were foiled due to the heavy presence of police and security forces in the streets. 

The map below shows the locations of 53 protests and the time periods.

During these protests, at least on 22 occasions in 14 cities, the police and security forces used tear gas, warning shots, pellet guns and in some cases heavy weapons against the protestors. In nine cities, tear gas and in 14 cities warning shots were used to scatter the crowds. In eight cities, security forces fired straight toward the crowds. Reportedly, security forces have used pellet guns, Kalashnikov assault rifles and paintball guns to disperse the protestors.

The map below shows the places where crackdowns and unrestrained shootings have been reported.

Since the beginning of the protests on Friday, May 6, the government disrupted the internet in several areas in Ahvaz in an attempt to prevent the protests. In the days that followed, Internet disruption was also reported in at least 10 cities.

In addition to intentional Internet disruption, the press was banned from covering the protests.

According to the reports obtained from local sources, at least 449 individuals were arrested during the protests.

So far, six people have been confirmed dead. These people have been identified as Pishali Ghalebi Hajivand (Dezful), Saadat Hadipour (Hafshejan), Jamshid Mokhtari Junaqani (Junaqan), Omid Soltani (Andimeshk), Hamid Ghasempour (Farsan City), and Behrooz Eslami (Babaheydar). HRANA can only confirm the reports on the death of the first two individuals mentioned above.

From all videos of protests which are circulating on social media, HRANA has verified the authenticity of 30 video reports which compilation you can watch below:

 

Mass Layoff: About 330 Workers Laid Off in Two Factories

Approximately 330 workers—150 workers at Iran-Mayeh Tabriz and 180 workers at Azim Khodro—have been laid off. Both mass layoffs appear to be the result of factory closure.

According to HRANA, the news agency of Human Rights Activists, quoting ILNA, Iran-Mayeh Tabriz has been shut down since early spring. The yeast manufacturing plant, owned by a Turkish investor, laid off approximately 150 workers over the course of several months.

“In December 2020, about 40 workers were laid off with the promise of getting back to work after relaunching the pertinent factory unit”, commented one of the laid-off workers. “Not only [did] that never [happen], but they also laid off the rest of 110 workers on March 12, 2021”.

He added: “To dissuade us from filing a complaint to the labour office, they paid two months wages and promised that they [would] reopen the factory within six months. During this time, some workers, under financial pressure, left this job either to get unemployment benefits or find another job. However, about 27 workers complained to the Ministry of Labour. [The Ministry] ordered employee retention and the continuation of wage payments. Nonetheless, despite this order to get back to work, the company hasn’t allowed us to go into work. They [told us] to get our wages, but not to come to the factory”.

At Azim Khodro, a car manufacturer in Borujerd City, 180 workers have been laid off due to factory closure. Due to legal issues, courts have prohibited the owner from running the factory. As a result, workers have not been paid for seven months.

HRANA Recap: This Week’s Protests in Iran

According to HRANA, the news agency of Human Rights Activists, a number of protests took place this week in Iran, many of which were continuations of ongoing movements.  Read our recap below for details, photos, and videos from the demonstrations.

Saturday, October 23

A group of contracted teachers and educators from the counties of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province assembled in front of the government building in Shahrekord to protest this year layoffs.

“126 teachers have been fired this academic year,” one protestor stated at the demonstration. “These layoffs happened only to the educators of this province. The teachers with the same conditions, all over the county, continue their work.”, he added.

Sunday, October 24

Workers for a heap leaching project at the copper mine Sungun Varzaghan assembled and protested their unpaid benefits this Sunday. 

Monday, October 25

In various cities across the country, judiciary personnel assembled in front of their local justice buildings and protested worsening job conditions and the failure of authorities to address their demands.

These protests were held in Tehran, Zanjan, Hamedan, Qom, Arak, Babol, Borujerd, Chaedgan, Firuzabad, Kerman, Khandab, Kuhrang, Meybod, Lenjan, Sari, Mehr, Nahavand, Urmia, Paveh, Rumeshkan, Semirom, Shahrekord, Shirvan,Shut, Taft, Razan, Eslamshahr, and Tuyserkan.

A group of patients with the blood disorder thalassemia assembled in front of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education building in Tehran. They protested the shortage of medicine and the institution’s shortcomings in addressing their issues.

A number of retirees on the pension fund of steel corporation Fulad traveled from various cities to Tehran and assembled in front of the pension fund building. As a symbolic act, they spread tablecloths without any food to show they hardly afford living costs. They asked for a pension above the poverty line, free medical treatment and closing the gap in pension incomes. They claimed that Fulad’s pension fund has breached regulations.

A group of teachers and educators in Rafsanjan City who has passed the recruitment exam taken by the Ministry of Education assembled in front of the building of this ministry in Rafsanjan.

“We are 62 teachers and all have been passed the recruitment exam, nonetheless, we have not been recruited,” one of the teachers commented. He added,  “Given that the Ministry of Education needed more than 200 teachers and there are a lot of local labour forces to be hired, why do they recruit from other cities?”

A number of athletes and paralympic medalists assembled in front of the government building in Damghan City. They protested the mismanagement of the county Ministry of Sport and Youth, as well as a shortage of sports facilities. According to these protestors, the sport salon allocated to them is often closed and each time they have to wait three hours for using the salon.

Bus and minibus drivers working in the transportation service of Southern Pars (Asaluyeh and Bandar-e Kangan) assembled outside the premises of the refineries. They protested against low wages in comparison to increasing transportation costs.

“Our wage is lower in comparison to the vehicle depreciation costs,” one protestor said, “and even though it is not enough, they delay payment.”

A number of young job seekers in Shushtar city assembled in front of the Karun Agro-industry Complex. They asked for recruitment of local job seekers in this industry complex. They find it unfair that, despite having several big corporation in this city, many skilled and educated workers remain jobless.

Some personnel of the Real Estate Registration Organization of Iran assembled and protested in front of the office of a member of the parliament in Qazvin.

A group of market workers in the border village Sheykh Salleh assembled to protest against the assigning  of border affairs to a non-native company.

Tuesday, October 26

A number of workers of Omidiyeh Water and Wastewater Company assembled in front of the government building of this city.

These workers said that despite promises from supervisors, they have four-month unpaid wages. Moreover, the end of year bonuses and three years end of service benefits have not been paid. They have protested several times in the past, but every time, they have not received an adequate response from authorities.

The retirees of Imam Khomeini hospital in Karaj assembled in front of this hospital to promote their demands on Tuesday.

For the second day, the retirees of the pension fund of the steel corporation Fulad assembled in front of the pension fund building in Tehran.

A group of retirees and working personnel of airline company Homa assembled in front of the building of Iran Ministry of Roads & Urban Development. They asked for fair and timely wages. According to these protestors, not only is the pension insignificant, but also there have been significant payment delays.

A number of farmers from eastern Isfahan assembled in front of the building of the Ministry of Agriculture Jihad. They protested not receiving their water shares and rights.

Workers of contractor companies delivering services like gardening, maintenance and transport for Pars Oil and Gas Company assembled in Asaluyeh to demand increased wages, supplementary insurance, and implementation of the Job Classification plan.

In Isfahan and Yazd Provinces, a number of people with hearing impairment assembled in front of the buildings of the State Welfare Organization of Iran. They cited livelihood problems, including denial of right to housing and insurance, as the reasons for their protest.

Wednesday, October 27

For the third consecutive day, a group of workers of Gachsaran Petrochemical Company protested at their workplace and then in front of the government building of Gachsaran.

They said that the contractors discriminates against the native laborers and threatens them to be fired. Reportedly, these contractor companies have raised the wage of non-native labor but not the native ones.

Some personnel of the Azad University, unit “Yadegare Imam” in Shahr-e-Rey city assembled and protested at the university premises to protest ongoing mismanagement. Reportedly, this protest turned somewhat violent.

A number of people who have lost their money in their accounts with Cryptoland, a cryptocurrency exchange, protested in front of the Tehran Courthouse. They demanded that legal processing return their losses.

A number of disabled war veterans assembled in front of the building of the Foundation of Martyrs and Veterans Affairs in Tehran. They protested poor living conditions and the non-implementation of some protective laws

Thursday, October 28

A number of workers of Khorramshahr municipality assembled in front of the building of the municipality to protest against a six-month delay in payment and other demands.

In Isfahan, a number of people with hearing loss assembled in front of the buildings of the State Welfare Organization of Iran.

A number of workers of the Kut-Abdollah municipality protested in front of the Governorate building of Khuzestan Province. They asked for the payment of their delayed wages.

A Daily Overview of Human Rights Violations in Iran for January 23, 2019

The following is an overview of human rights violations in Iran on January 23rd, 2019 based on the information compiled and verified by Human Rights Activists News Agency (HRANA).

(1) At least six protests were organized across the country on January 23, 2019. The municipality workers in Marivan, Borujerd, and Shadegan, the retired employees in Tehran, costumers of Kerman Motors in Tehran, and the families of victims’ of Sanchi oil tanker collision have held separate protests to request their redemands.

(2) The authorities of Evin prison refused to transfer Narges Mohammadi and Nazanin Zaghari Ratcliffe to a hospital. Mohammadi is in urgent need of medical care such as anti-seizure drugs.

(3) Esmat Salahshour was sentenced to five years imprisonment in Urmia, on the charge of “cooperation with a Kurdish opposition group”. Mokhtar Zarei has been tried in absentia and was sentenced to three years in prison. He is accused of “insulting the Supreme Leader” and “propaganda against the state”.

(4) Yashar Soltani, director of Memari News website, was sentenced to five years in prison, and was banned for two years form traveling, membership in any social or political group, and internet activism. He was arrested in 2016 after he reported on alleged corruption in Tehran’s municipal government.

(5) Majid Hosseini was released on bail today. He was transferred from solitary confinement to the quarantine ward of Evin prison recently. Arsham rezaei who was arrested with him, is still in prison. He was arrested with Arsham Rezaei on the charges of “insulting the Supreme Leader” and “collusion against the state”.

(6) Iraj Mohammadi was released on bail after ten days, in Miandoab. He was accused of “propaganda against the state” because a former political prisoner transferred the amount of money into Mohammadi’s bank account.

(7) Leila Mir-Ghaffari was sentenced to paying fines for de-veiling. In October she was sentenced to two-year in prison for having pointed to a picture on the wall. Mir-Ghaffari was initially detained for supporting the “Girls of Enghelab Street.”

(8) Rahman Jasbi Zargani who was married and had two children, was executed in Sepidar prison in Ahvaz on the charge of murder. He was accused of murdering his cousin in a fight in 2009. In 2018, at least 236 people have been executed and 195 people have been sentenced to death in Iran.

(9) Sepideh Gholian was detained in the Intelligence Ministry’s detention center in Ahvaz but Esmail Bakhshi ‘s whereabouts is still unknown. They have been rearrested after the broadcast of their under-torture confessions on the national television. Their families have been under pressure from security forces not to discuss the matter publicly. Moreover, Amnesty International warns that they are at grave risk of further torture.

(10) Saeed Shirzad, a political prisoner in Rajaee Shahr prison in Karaj, has been refused urgent medical care despite doctors requested his transfer to hospital for his severe kidneys’ failure a month ago. While the prosecutor’s office has assured that he would receive treatment a month ago, prison authorities have prevented this transfer.

(11) Two workers died and one was injured in Charmshahr village in Tehran province because of negligence in the oversight of safety conditions in their workplace. Iran ranked 102 in the workplace safety among other countries.

(12) Four female prisoners including a juvenile offender, accused of murder were spared from hanging on gallows by consent of next of kin in Shahr-e Rey prison. In addition, Sohrab Nosrati was saved from execution in Rajaee shahr prison in Karaj.

(13) Two thousand workers of Abadan municipality have unpaid wages. The workers of Ghoflkar Company in Qazvin have held a protest to request their unpaid wages on Tuesday.

(14) Ahwazi Arab citizens, Hassan Alvani, Malek Abdollahi, and Gheis Chaian have been arrested by security forces in Ahvaz and Shush. Their whereabouts are still unknown.

(15) Tehran appeals court sentenced Christian converted ,Majid Reza Souzanchi Kashani, to two-year prison term. He was charged with “membership in evangelical groups” and “evangelical-related activities”.

(16) The arrest of 11 poachers in Sarab and 160 illegal tree removals in Bandar Abbas have been reported by the Department of Enviroment.

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A Daily Overview of Human Rights Violations in Iran for January 22, 2019

The following is an overview of human rights violations in Iran on January 22nd, 2019 based on the information compiled and verified by Human Rights Activists News Agency (HRANA).

(1) More than nine protests were organized across the country. Retired educators and other retired government employees, Ghoflkar Company workers in Alborz, the municipality workers in Lowshan, Marivan, Borujerd, and Andimeshk, the workers of Assaluyeh Pars Petrochemical Company, the shareholders of Caspian financial institution in Rasht, and the contractors of Tehran municipality have held separate protests to request their demands.

(2) Placed 1st in the Iranian University Master Studies Entrance Exam, Amir Reza Alipour Hashtali Amoli, was sentenced to six months in prison on the charge of “insulting the Supreme Leader”.

(3) In the last nine months, 56 workers died and 112 have been injured in the work-related incidents in East Azerbaijan province, which is a four percent increase over a year. Iran ranked 102 in the workplace safety among other countries.

(4) 72 people have been arrested in a “mix gender party” in Sari. The detainees were transferred to the court. They may be able to get out of jail by posting bail, otherwise they would be imprisoned.

(5) Mashallah Shamsolvaezin, a professor of journalism, was summoned to the Evin’s prosecutor’s office. He was an editor of several newspapers, including Kian, Toos, Jame’eh, Neshat, and Asr-e Azadegan.

(6) A Human rights lawyer, Mohammad Najafi, was sentenced to 19 years imprisonments. He is serving his three years sentence in prison and faced 74 lashes and 16 more years imprisonment for his new charge of “spreading lies and disturbing public opinion”.

(7) Behzad Shahsavar and Siamand Shahsavar, prisoners of the Intelligence detention center in Urmia, have been transferred to Naqadeh prison. They were accused of “corporation with a Kurdish opposition group”.

(8) 23-year-old, Amin Pishdad, was transferred to Vakil Abad prison in Mashhad. He had been arrested last year on blasphemy and espionage related charges and was sentenced to ten years in prison which was reduced in the appeals court to eight months.

(9) A Baha’i citizen, Soheil Haghdoost, was sentenced to four months imprisonment on the charge of “propaganda against the state” for announcing and following up regarding his business’s forced closure. Also, he has been sentenced to a year in prison in March 2018.

(10) Reza Khandan and Farhad Meysami have been sentenced to six years in prison each, and were banned for two years form traveling, membership in any social or political group, and internet activism.

(11) The workers of Assaluyeh Pars Petrochemical Company, who were protesting their layoffs, have been arrested.

(12) Five students in Kashan were transferred to a hospital for gas poisoning because of negligence in the oversight of safety conditions in heater installation in the school.

(13) Three thousand villages in Sistan and Baluchestan do not have water distribution network. 46 percent of population in this province have access to the water sources.

(14) Members of the Iranian Writers Association, Baktash Abtin, Reza Khandan Mahabadi, and Keyvan Bazhan have been arrested. They were summoned to the court on the “encouraging immorality or prostitution” and security-related charges, were imprisoned because they could not post a bail.

(15) 180 workers of Ahvaz inter-city rail have 18 months of unpaid wages. Kayson Project Management Company paid one months of their unpaid wages but there are still concerns that the remaining will be left unpaid.

(16) A prisoner accused of murdering his friend was spared from hanging on gallows by consent of next of kin in Tehran. He was spending 6 years in prison.

(17) Mohammad Hosseinzadeh, civil rights activist, was released on bail. He was arrested with Arsham Rezaei and Majid Hosseini on the charges of “insulting the Supreme Leader” and “collusion against the state”. The two others’ whereabouts is still unknown.

A Daily Overview of Human Rights Violations in Iran for January 3, 2019

The following is an overview of human rights violations in Iran on January 3rd, 2019 based on the information compiled and verified by Human Rights Activists News Agency (HRANA).

(1) Kourosh Karampour, a teacher and a poet, was beaten and arrested in Abadan. He had been summoned to Ministry of Education because of his interviews in support of teachers’ strikes and protests in the last few months.

(2) Mohsen Valadkhani, a detained Telegram activist, was released from prison after finishing his one-year sentence. He was charged with ‘insulting the Supreme Leader’ and ‘propaganda against the state’.

(3) Child abuse in Mashhad caused the death of a six-year-old girl. Hadiseh was transferred to a hospital on December 25th and died yesterday. Her body shows signs of torture such as burn wound infections on her genital and the rest of her body.

(4) Ahmad Taghavi, a retired teacher and a union activist, was arrested in the city of Abhar in Zanjan province. The reason of his arrest and his whereabouts are unknown.

(5) Four Azerbaijani Turkic minority rights activists were released on bail in Sarab. Sahand Moali, Vahid Nourahmadi, Heidar Mazinani, and Mohammad Ranjbari had been arrested on December 31.

(6) Mehdi Yarrahi, a pop singer, was banned from working because he wore work costume of the workers of Iran National Steel Company on the stage. Also, “Jame Sabz”, the producer company of his new music video “Pareh Sang”, in which he pointed out Khuzestan issues, was suspended.

(7) The head of Housing Foundation in Golestan province reported that approximately 128 thousand houses and schools in villages are prone to natural disasters. This would cause catastrophes and villagers’ migration.

(8) Four human rights organizations published an annual report of Military forces monitoring in remote areas: more than 300 injuries and deaths in 11 provinces.

(9) Mohsen Farahmand and Mohammad Dadresi were released on bail in Marivan. Hamid Parvazeh, Mohammad Parvazeh, and Salman Afra are still in prison. They are accused of ‘cooperation with a Kurdish opposition group’ and were denied access to a lawyer.

(10) Majid Khomami Asl was executed in Nowshahr today. He was charged with murder in a so-called honor-killing.

(11) Two mines were shut down over environmental pollution concerns.

(12) Department of Environment reported the arrest of 44 poachers in Mahabad and 199 poachers in Ardabil during the last eight months.

(13) 12 students were poisoned by a nonstandard gas heater in a Valiasr school of Tabriz. Two of them were transferred to hospital. Nonstandard heaters used in schools reportedly have caused catastrophes.

(14) One worker died and three were injured because of unsafe workplaces in Tabriz and Yazd on January 3, 2019.

(15) Hasan Shahreza, a detained Gonabadi dervish, was denied medical care in Fashafuieh prison. He has several shots of police shotgun in his body since he was arrested 10 months ago. Detained dervishes reportedly tried to take out bullets by tuna can lid.

(16) The city services workers of Borujerd, Dorud, Aleshtar, Kuhdasht, Chaghabal, and Khorramabad in Lorestan province have 115 billion Toman [$11M] unpaid wages combined. They have at least five months unpaid wages.

A Daily Overview of Human Rights Violations in Iran for December 19, 2018

The following is an overview of human rights violations in Iran on December 19th, 2018 based on the information compiled and verified by Human Rights Activists News Agency (HRANA).

(1) Nasrin Sotoudeh, the jailed human rights lawyer, who was sentence to five years imprisonment earlier this year, will face prosecution on her new charges on December 23. Also, Nader Fatourehchi confirmed that he faced persecution over his criticism of prison conditions after his detention in Fashafoyeh Prison. His court day will be on December 23, 2018.

(2) More than four protests were held in Iran.  Workers of Zanjan Bus Company, retired teachers and the education personnel of Kermanshah, and participants of entrance exam at Medical Branch of Islamic Azad University held protests on December 19, 2018.

(3) Iranian Parliament Committee on Culture requested investigation and additional information from Judiciary and intelligence department about Vahid Sayadi Nasiri, the imprisoned Iranian activist who died after a 60-day hunger strike.

(4) Siamak Namazi and Baquer Namazi ‘s appeals were denied. Siamak was sentenced to 10 years in prison for collaborating with a foreign government. Baquer who was a governor before the revolution is suffering from heart disease.

(5) A theatrical performance was canceled in Islamic Azad University of Quchan because of a mixed-gender play on the scene.

(6) On December 19, 2018, 11 detained workers of Iranian National Steel Industrial Group in Ahvaz were released on bail. Their names are the following: Seyed Habib Tabatabaei, Javad Gholami, Mohsen Baloti, Mehdi Tahmasbi, Kourosh Esmaeili, Ali Emami, Abdolreza Dasti, Sohrab Naami, Hossein Asakereh, Fariborz Sheikhrobat, and Seyed Ali Javadpour. On December 16, more than 43 workers of Iranian National Steel Industrial Group in Ahvaz had been arrested.

(7) City service workers of Borujerd have nine months of unpaid wages. Borujerd is a city in Lorestan province.

(8) Mohammad Mehdi Zamanzadeh,an internet activist, was temporary released from jail. Zamanzadeh, Mohammad Mohajer and Alireza Tavakoli were arrested in September 2018 and have been sentenced to five years imprisonment being accused of blasphemy related charges.

(9) Mehran Zahrakar is a detained author who is serving his two years sentence on charge with ‘insulting supreme leader’. He has been published several socio-political books.

(10) Shaho Sadeghi, a labor activist who was accused of ‘propaganda against the state’ for participating in International Workers’ Day protest, began serving his sentence on December 19,2018.

Five Detainees in Borujerd under Pressure for False Confessions

HRANA News Agency – The Ministry of Intelligence issued a statement announcing the arrest of “the core of the terrorist group in Borujerd”. The statement claimed that the core has played a role in subversive acts during the recent national protests. Also, a member of this group has been wounded in a clash during the arrest, according to the security agency. Two hours after the issuance of the announcement, two of the arrestees were brought to the provincial TV and confessed against themselves.
Close relatives to these people, in contact with HRANA, rejected the allegations and said “they were merely part of the protesters in recent events; two of the detainees referred to are known underground artists in the Lorestan region, and none of them has a previous prison record or previous political activity.” The families of these people are worried that their children will be victimized by the security system’s advertising scenarios, which have a background. Continue reading “Five Detainees in Borujerd under Pressure for False Confessions”